Let’s explore set of science words that start with the letter ‘B’ in this article. As always, you can find a lot many science words along with their definitions and examples. Have a look and enjoy!
Glossary of Science Words that Start with Letter ‘B’
We will cover some interesting words that start with B in these fields:
Chemical science Terms and Definitions
Background Radiation: Background radiation is the one to which humans are exposed without their knowledge. Examples are the radiation from radioactive materials on Earth, cosmic rays, radionuclides that occur naturally in food substances, etc. However, background radiation could be either natural or artificial. But the amount of radiation depends on the type of geological area and its elevations.
β-Hydroxy Acid: β-hydroxy acid or beta hydroxy acid is an acidic chemical compound containing two carbon atoms separating two functional groups. i.e. a hydroxyl functional group and a carboxylic acid group. And these acids show relative similarity with alpha hydroxyl acids.
BHA’s do surprising benefits to human skin and works as a chemical exfoliator.
β-carbon: β-carbon is the second carbon atom present adjacent to the alpha carbon atom in a moiety of interest attached to a functional group. And this is also notified as beta carbon.
Background Noise: Background noise, referred to as ambient noise by humans, is happening at the background level while listening to main sounds. In the field of chemistry, it is the interference dimension familiar while recording data signals.
β-branching: In an organic compound, if a beta carbon attached to any kind of other functional groups, then that branch is nothing but β-branching. Consider the chemical molecule, Neopentyl chloride, which encompasses two methyl groups at its beta carbon position. Beta branching is commonly stood for as β-branching.
β-hydrogen: The hydrogen atom attached to the adjacent carbon atom of the alpha carbon atom, i.e. nothing but beta carbon atom, refers to β-hydrogen. The symbol β stands for the word beta in common usage.
Bactericide: Bactericideis a chemical substance that stops the growth and development of bacteria, leading to its death.
Back Titration: The reverse process of the titration method in chemistry is nothing but back titration. In a titration, different concentrations of reagents were added in two types and titrated to learn the exact quantity of substance in the original solution. This process is beneficial when the amount of reactant exists in excess amounts known and understands the initial analyte’s precise quantity.
Bainite: The plate-like transformation product formed at 125–550 °C temperature, especially in steels, is bainite. And the characteristics of bainite include micro and non-lamellar structure. It encompasses cementite, iron carbide, and ferrite.
Balmer Series: Balmer series, also famous as the Balmer lines, are the four particular lines in the hydrogen emission spectrum. These series represent the energy levels of electron transitions, i.e. n > 2 to n = 2. You can observe the Balmer series in the visible spectrum.
Besides, there is a lot of hydrogen in the universe, and hence these Balmer lines appear numerously in astronomical substances.
Baeyer Reagent: Baeyer reagent, a strong oxidizing agent that helps oxidation of alkynes and alkenes since this reagent act together with the double and triple bonds. It is nothing but alkaline and dilutes solution of cold potassium permanganate.
Balanced Equation: A chemical equation refers to the balanced equation when the number of atoms in the reactants is equal to the number of atoms in products. Since a chemical reaction is nothing but a re-arrangement of atoms between reactants and products, it requires balancing at all times.
Barrel: In chemistry, a barrel is a container that distributes certain liquid types into a rotating mud system to keep up the uniformity in pH levels. On the other hand, it is a capacity unit that mostly comes into use in fuel and petroleum fields. E.g.:
In the petroleum industry: 1 barrel = 159 litres or 42 US gallons. The Beer industry is equal to 117 litres or 31 US gallons, and in Dry goods, one barrel is equal to 115.6 litres or 7,056 cubic inches.
Band Gap Energy: In semiconductors and conductors, the bandgap represents the energy required to excite an electron into the conduction band. It also tells the distance travelled by an excited electron between conduction and valence band.
Barium: The name of the fifth element in group 2 of the periodic table with the symbol ‘Ba’ and atomic number 56 is barium. It is soft and alkaline by nature plus useful as an X-ray absorber in medical laboratories. However, the insoluble components of barium are not suitable for human health.
Base: A base is a chemical substance that can alter the colour of indicators, work with salts, and initiate specific chemical reactions. The typical examples of bases include sodium hydroxide (NaOH), Caesium hydroxide (CsOH), Rubidium hydroxide (RbOH), and Barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)2).
Bar: Bar is nothing but a pressure unit that measures the changes happening with the pressure during a chemical investigation. The bar’s value is equal to 105 Pascals or 29.53 in Hg (inches of mercury) or 1.01325 atmospheres or 14.5038 psi (pounds per square inch).
Base Metal: The metals like zinc, aluminium, copper, and nickel can tarnish, oxidize and corrode while contacting either with moisture or air are base metals.
Base Anhydride: The metal anhydrides formed after removing water molecules from any kind of hydroxide base molecules is simply base anhydride. The oxide form of chemical elements belonging to group 1 and 2 of the periodic table also refers to base anhydrides—E.g. CaO becomes calcium hydroxide CaOH when reacting with water.
Base Dissociation Constant: The equilibrium constant that measures and represents a base’s ionization reaction is the base dissociation constant. Kb denotes the value of the base dissociation constant. For Ex: BaOH dissociates and forms OH– and B+ ions; here, the Kb value is equal to [OH–][B+]/[BOH].
Base Catalysis: A type of chemical reaction that takes a base molecule to enhance the reaction rate is base catalysis. Since the base molecule act as a catalyst to a chemical reaction, it denotes as base catalysis chemical reaction—E.g. Aldol Condensation reaction of benzaldehyde and acetone, which catalyzes by sodium hydroxide, NaOH.
Base Promoted: Base promoted is also a type of chemical reaction whose reaction rate depends on a base substance but not utilizes the base as a catalyst.
Basic Solutions: The solutions, including aqueous solutions that reveal the Ph value higher than 7, are basic solutions.
Battery: Battery, a sequence of electrochemical cells that utilizes the stored chemical energy through redox reactions into electrical energy. Batteries supply direct electricity and power various electrical equipment’s functioning.
Becquerel: The measuring unit that tells the degree of ionizing radiation released from an unstable element while undergoing radioactive decay is Becquerel. And one Becquerel is equal to 1 radioactive decay/second.
Batch Reactor: A kind of container that uses various reactants at different reactor conditions to produce products in large industries is a batch reactor.
Battery Acid: The sulphuric acid present in dilute form and preferably used in storage batteries is nothing but battery acid. Most commonly, motor vehicle industries use battery acids in different combinations with water. Such as 30-50% sulfuric acid combined with water in automotive batteries is a perfect example for battery acids.
Beer-Lambert Law: Beer-Lambert law is a chemical law that states the relation between light energy and the materials through which light travels. The formula that derives the dilution of light properties through a substance is A= ebc, where e= molar absorptivity, b= length of the light path, c=concentration, and A=absorbance. And the other popular name for beer lambert-law is Beer’s Law.
BCC: BCC stands for Body Centred Cubic, denotes the type of crystal structure in which atoms of a molecule arranged at the cubic cell vertices but one atom at the centre.
Beryllium: Beryllium is the chemical element mainly present in gyroscopes, spot-welding electrodes, non-sparking tools, springs, etc. It has atomic number 4, and by appearance, it is hard, silvery-white, and grey. ‘Be’ is the symbol of this alkaline earth metal.
Benzyne: A cyclic hydrocarbon with molecular formula C6H4 and is almost similar to benzene compound is benzyne. The difference between benzene and benzyne is the substitution of one of the double bonds of benzene with a triple bond in benzyne. However, benzyne is unsaturated and unstable. It is the resulting intermediate product of dehalogenation of 2-bromofluorobenzene by magnesium.
Benzenoid Ring: The utmost aromatic and six-membered rings with three official double bonds and a benzene-like structure are benzenoid rings. Otherwise, any polycyclic chemical compound consisting of one or more benzene rings comes underclass of benzenoid ring compounds. E.g. naphthalene.
Berkelium: The human-made radioactive chemical metal element which holds atomic number 97 and belongs to the actinide series is nothing but berkelium. This metal is the product of a reaction between americium with helium ions. And it is handy for the synthesis of the tennessine element, which is a heavier element.
Benzyl Group: When a benzene ring is associated with the CH2 functional group, it is the benzyl group.
Beta Decay: The type of radioactive decay that happens spontaneously and releases beta particle as the product is nothing but beta decay. However, the beta particle produced can act as an electron or positron during the decomposition.
Beta-Hydroxy Acid: The class of chemical compounds which consists of a hydroxyl functional group and a carboxylic functional group but divided by two carbon atoms is a beta-hydroxy acid.
Bidentate: The donor atoms that tend to bind to the central metal atom or ion present in a coordinated complex of a molecule are known as bidentate. Well, these bidentate atoms attach to the central atom using two different points. The oxalate ion (ox) and Ethylenediamine (en) are typical examples of bidentate ligands.
Beta Radiation: Beta radiation is the type of ionizing radiation happening during the radioactive decay process. E.g. The radioactive decay of a nucleus of an atom produces high energy electrons and positrons.
Beta Particle: Beta particle is the radioactive term helpful in naming radioactive decay, i.e. either electron or positron.
Bifunctional Monomer: Bifunctional Monomers are the monomer unit, consisting of two active binding sites to bind to other units. On the other hand, when an organic compound consists of two different functional groups, it denotes a bifunctional molecule.
Bidentate Ligand: Bidentate ligands, also known as chelating ligands, are the donating atoms that donate two pairs of electrons to the central atom of the metal atom.
Binary Acid: The type of molecular compounds in which one hydrogen atom attaches to the other non-metal is a binary acid compound. E.g. hydrofluoric – HF, Hydrochloric – HCl, HBr are a few binary acid examples.
Bi-Molecular: In organic chemistry, any type of chemical reaction between two reactant molecules in the form of collision refers to bi-molecular reactions.
Binding Energy: The energy utilized for separating electrons or protons, or neutrons from an atom’s nucleus is binding energy. This energy is similar to the nucleus’s mass defect since it helps in holding the nucleus intact.
Binary Compound: The two non-metal atoms combine to form a molecular compound, a binary compound. For Ex: carbon tetrachloride. But do not confuse binary compounds with ionic compounds because ionic compounds formed by one metal and non-metal ions.
Bio-Chemistry: The study which relates chemical laws and reactions to living organisms like animals, humans, etc., is simply bio-chemistry. It is a combinational study of both fields, such as biology and chemistry, on living things.
Biology: The anatomical study of living species to determine their physiology, internal analysis, behaviour, origin, and morphology is biology.
Biocide: The chemical compounds that are useful for destroying or preventing living organisms’ growth are biocides. A wide range of pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides come under the biocide family. Majorly, these biocide mixtures or solutions help the medical industry decontaminate or sterilize the contaminated parts. Such contaminated parts may include skin, medical equipment, floor, etc.
Bi-organic Chemistry: Bi-organic Chemistry is the science field that combines two types of areas, such as biochemistry and organic chemistry. It uses various chemical processes to study and analyze biological processes like enzyme and protein functions.
Bitumen: The leftover product obtained during converting crude oil into gasoline and LPG gas is nothing but bitumen. And bitumen is also the by-product of the distillation process. Chemically, bitumen is simply a mixture of hydrocarbons naturally abundant on Earth’s surface in black colour. However, it is the primary ingredient to roof the road surfaces.
Bismuth: Bismuth refers to the reddish-grey metal that has atomic number 83 with the symbol Bi. It consists of less melting points mixed with cadmium and tin; it helps manufacture fire extinguishers, electric fuses, and detectors. It is so brittle with high density by nature.
Black Lead: Blacklead is the other term for graphite, which is nothing but the allotropic form of carbon. You can see graphite in rocks naturally as a mineral and works excellent as moderators for nuclear reactors.
Black Body Radiation: Black body is an ideal body, capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation at thermodynamic equilibrium. This electromagnetic radiation emitted by the black body is simply black body radiation.
Black Body: The ideal body, which is a perfect absorber as it allows all incident radiation to transfer into its black body.
Black Light: The electromagnetic radiation, i.e. infrared or ultraviolet light and a little visible light emitting from a particular lamp, is a black light. As far as the human eyes concerned, this light is black because they cannot recognize this light in daylight. But this light is visible in the dark and hence known as black light.
Block Copolymer: The linear arrangement of copolymers formed by two monomer units and results in building blocks are block copolymers. And these blocks repeatedly occur in long sequence using two different monomer units. E.g., X-X-X-X-X-Y-Y-Y-Y-Y-X-X-X-X-X-; here X and Y are Different groups of blocks. In reality, the SBS rubber is the best example of block copolymer because rubber is a combination of polybutadiene and polystyrene, which are highly useful in making automobile tyres.
Block: In chemistry, it has different and multiple meanings depending on the area of usage. Let us see what they are!
1) A block is a particular portion in a periodic table set for a specific group of elements and primarily refers to the outermost shell of atomic orbitals. And the names of these blocks are s, p, d, and f orbitals. For E.g. Carbon belongs to the 2p block region while transition elements belong to the d block.
2) A vast and complex substance made of hard materials and flat surfaces such as wood, rocks, etc., denotes block materials.
3) A large structure subdivided into separate rooms known as blocks.
Bohrium: In the periodic chemistry table, Bohrium is the chemical element holding its atomic number 107 and symbol ‘Bh’. By nature, it is a volatile element belonging to the 7th-period group elements and is a d- block transactinide element.
Blue vitriol: The old and earlier name of copper sulphate (CuSO4) is nothing but blue vitriol. It is the significant salt version of copper and stays crystalline. The processing of sulfuric acid with copper oxides results in the production of blue vitriol.
Bohr Radius: The mean radius referring to the ground state radius present in a hydrogen atom between its electron and nucleus is Bohr radius. A physical constant holds the name after the great scientist Neil’s Bohr and equal to about 5.29177210903×10⁻¹¹ m or 5.29×10−9 centimetre.
Boiling Point: The temperature of a substance, i.e. liquid at which the pressure of its surface makes to evaporate in the form of vapours, is nothing but a boiling point. To put it simple, the pressure revealing on the liquid surface is identical to the force required for liquid evaporation. E.g. The boiling point of water at sea level is 212 °F or 100 °Cwhereas at 6,250 ft. or 1,905 metres altitude, it is 200.1 °F or 93.4 °C.
Boltzmann′s Constant: Boltzmann′s Constant, symbolized as ‘k B or k’, is a proportionality constant that determines the relation between ideal gas molecules. This constant works in regards to the absolute temperature and kinetic energy of molecules. Boltzmann’s constant is equal to 1.380649×10−23 J⋅K−1.
Boiling: Boiling is a temperature period happening between the processes of converting liquids into vapours. Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius, and it depends on the type of substances kept for boiling for different substances.
Boiling Point Elevation: The phenomenon of exhibiting higher boiling points by solvent substances than the solute substances added into it is boiling point elevation. For example, when you add salt, which represents a solute substance, to the solvent, i.e. water, water shows a higher boiling point.
Bond Angle: As the name suggests, a bond angle is the angle between the two adjacent bonds of atoms belonging to the single-molecule.
Bond Energy: Bond energy is simply the measure of bond strength, calculated by breaking the molecules into its different chemical species. It is otherwise popular with the terms bond enthalpy or average bond enthalpy.
Bond: In the fields of chemistry and biology, a bind has different versions of definitions such as:
1) In biology, a bond represents the relationship between two people or groups of people regarding their feelings and experiences.
2) In chemistry, an electrostatic link helps keep two atoms intact by sharing electrons between them. For E.g. Neutral atoms in a molecule tend to bond with the central atom by sharing electrons.
Bond Enthalpy: Bond enthalpy refers to bond energy in chemistry, which represents the enthalpy change happening while a mole of molecules breaking down into components.
Bond-Dissociation Energy: The quantity of energy helpful in breaking a bond between two atoms in a molecule through the process of hemolysis is Bond-Dissociation Energy. And the products released after hemolysis of atomic bond refers to radical species. It is a standard enthalpy change that occurs during the homolysis of a nuclear bond.
Bonding Molecular Orbital: The bonding molecular orbital represents the bonding orbital in molecular orbital theory. The primary function of bonding molecular orbitals is to mention the interactive forces or attractions between a molecule’s atoms.
Bond Length: The distance existing between the atomic nuclei of two different and covalently bonded atoms in a molecule refers to bond length. The value of bond length simply depends on the number of electrons shared between the atoms.
Bond Order: Bond order in chemistry denotes the stability of a bond by calculating the number of electron pairs shared between a pair of atoms of a molecule. Mathematically, we can calculate bond order by learning the variation between the number of anti-bonds and bonds in a molecule.
Boyle’s Law: Boyle’s law or Boyle–Mariotte law or simply Mariotte law states that the pressure of a given amount of gas and volume of the same amount of gas remains inversely proportional. That means, if you increase the magnitude of the gas substance, then there is an automatic decrease in the pressure.
P ∝ (1/V)
Where p= pressure and v= volume
Boron: Boron is the significant element in plant biology, nuclear sciences, and chemical industries. It bears the atomic number 5 in the periodic table and holds the symbol ‘B’. It is a solid substance maintaining metalloid properties, i.e. consisting of both metallic and non-metallic properties.
Bremsstrahlung: When a charged particle passes through magnetic and electric fields, the radiation emitted while decelerating the particle is electromagnetic radiation. Such electromagnetic radiation refers to Bremsstrahlung. And by name ‘bremsen’ means “braking”, and Strahlung means “radiation” in the bremsen language.
Branched Chain Alkane: The branched chains in which alkane hydrocarbons consists of alkyl functional groups interacting to the central carbon atom are Branched Chain Alkane. These are very often happening alkanes in organic chemistry.
Brimstone: Brimstone is the last name for a chemical element that holds an atomic number and symbol, i.e. nothing but sulphur. By meaning, brimstone defines ‘Burning Stone’. Naturally, it is available abundantly near volcanic fissures and hot springs.
Branched Polymer: The branches of the main backbone polymer chain holding the secondary polymer chain is nothing but branched polymer. These branched polymers result in different shaped polymers such as H-shaped, comb-shaped, star-shaped, etc.
Brass: A yellow alloy of zinc and copper is nothing but brass. Brass is widely helpful in manufacturing musical instruments like bells and horns. On the other hand, it is an excellent substituent for copper while making fashion, imitation and costume jewellery.
British Thermal Unit: The unit that measures the quantity of heat used to increase the temperature of 1 lb of water one degree Fahrenheit is a British thermal unit. This unit of heat energy is equal to 1.055 × 103 joules at maximum density. Well, BTU stands for British Thermal Unit as a short form.
Bromine: Bromine is the chemical term of the chemical element belonging to the halogen group with atomic number 35 and symbol ‘Br’. It is a liquid giving foul smell and appears dark red. Naturally, it happens in the form of salts in brines and seawater. Also, it is beneficial as dyestuffs, agricultural chemicals, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and insecticides.
Bronze: An alloy of copper that possesses tin as its main component is nothing but bronze. It is yellowish-brown in colour and represents power and strength. It is instrumental in the sports industry for making medals and manufacturing musical instruments and sculptures since it is highly resistant to corrosion, widely used in the nautical sector.
Bromination: Bromination is the chemical process involves in the reaction between molecules to insert a bromine atom into it. Generally, brominated chemical compounds are beneficial for treating water in swimming pools and other water storage tanks because these compounds help in preventing bacterial growth.
Bronsted-Lowry Base: Any chemical species that accept a proton, i.e. hydrogen ions participating in a chemical reaction, is Bronsted-Lowry Base. E.g. In a chemical reaction between water and acetic acid, water is the Bronsted-Lowry base since it accepts the protons offering from acetic acid.
Bronsted-Lowry Acid: The chemical species participating in a chemical reaction and acts as hydrogen ions donors are Bronsted-Lowry acids. E.g. HCl, proton donor, and donates hydrogen ions.
Butter: Chemically, butter is a fat substance consisting of triglyceride mixtures from fat compounds like myristic, palmitic, stearic acids, etc. C15H8Cl8O2 is the chemical name for butter. It is also helpful for denoting the chlorides of inorganic compounds like SnCl4 and Zncl2 during ancient days. E.g. Butter of tin, butter of zinc, butter of antimony, etc.
Buffer: The chemical solution capable of maintaining its pH levels without effecting by adding acidic or basic substances is a buffer solution. It works by neutralizing the acidic and basic substances when added to the solution.
Butter of Arsenic: Butter of Arsenic is nothing but an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ascl3 known as arsenous chloride. By nature, this substance is oily and colourless but poisonous. This is the intermediate compound while manufacturing organo-arsenic compounds.
Butter of Antimony: The chemical compound with the chemical formula Sbcl3, i.e. nothing but antimony trichloride, is the butter of antimony. It is solid and colourless by nature and gives a pungent smell.
Butter of Bismuth: The ancient name of BiCl3, i.e. bismuth trichloride, is nothing but butter of bismuth. The current and alternate names of butter of bismuth include bismuth (III) chloride. It is an inorganic compound available in yellow colour and acts as a strong donor of Bi3+ ions.
Butter of Zinc: The chemical compounds whose molecular formula is ZnCl2, i.e. zinc chloride, refers to the butter of zinc but in the olden days. Also, the hydrates of zinc chloride denote butter of zinc.
Butter of Tin: Butter of tin represents Tin(IV) chloride pentahydrate in an earlier chemistry period. SnCl45H2O also refers to the butter of tin, crystalline hydrates and hygroscopic.
Glossary of ‘B’ Science Words in Biology
Bacteria: Bacteria is a unicellular microorganism and is a type of microbe that causes several deadly diseases to humans and animals. And these bacteria come under germs classification, which are not visible to the naked human eye but can survive in any environments. However, all the bacteria is not deadly for humans because there are some good one which does well to the human body.
Bases: The bottom part of any substance refers to the ground, and in chemistry, the substance which maintains its pH level above 7 on the scale of 0-14 in aqueous solutions is the base.
Biosphere: Biosphere is nothing but the Earth’s environmental sphere where life exists along with other abiotic (non-living) factors by acquiring energy. Such environmental factors include the hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere, etc. Simply, it refers to the global ecological system that consists of both living and non-living elements.
Balance: The state of equilibrium at which something or someone aids to balance things in regards to the quantity denotes the term balance.
Blight: Blight is a type of disease that occurs to plants or causes infections in plants typically triggered by fungi like smuts and mildews.
Buoyancy: The state of an object being able to rise or float when dropped inside the liquid solution is buoyancy. There are three types of buoyancy which include: Negative buoyancy, positive buoyancy, and neutral buoyancy.
Biome: Biome is a kind of area present in larger spaces and consists of various communities such as deciduous forests, vegetation, water, etc. All these biomes are classified based on soil, climate, air, etc., available in that particular area.
Black Hole: A region in the atmosphere or space where there is a high gravitational force that traps all kinds of materials from microscopic to large bodies is a black hole. Such materials include any kind of matter, all types of radiations, dust particles, smoke, etc.
Back Mutation: The process of restoring original phenotypic genes of a current existing gene is back mutation. And the changes mainly happen in the nucleotide pair of the genomes.
Basal Body: A protein structure that helps develop axoneme microtubules and found at the bottom part of a eukaryotic undulipodium. It is cylindrical with a flagellated and cilial type of cells. Also, it is matching to the centriole part in the structure.
Bacteriocide: The alternate and short form of bacteriocide is Bcidal and bactericide. Also, these are chemical substances, popular with the names antiseptics, disinfectants, and antibiotics in the market as they are expert in killing and preventing the spread of bacterial population. The substances which kill bacteria and its cells and refer to the antibodies is nothing but bacteriocide.
B Cells: B-cells are nothing but B-Lymphocytes, whose definition is in detail below.
B Lymphocytes: B Lymphocytes are a kind of disease-fighting structures present in the human body and come under the humoral immunity category. Antibody production is its primary defence of function to defeat pathogens in the body. The primary production of B-Lymphocytes happens inside the hemopoietic stem cells of bone marrow.
Bacillus: Bacillus is a kind of aerobic bacteria, i.e. gram-positive bacteria exists in the shape of rod-like and causes various diseases. It is significant in releasing saprophytes, endospores, and other kinds of tiny parasites.
Bacteriostat: A mixture of substance or preparation or disinfectant, which helps control the reproduction process of bacteria is Bacteriostat. This substance mainly helps in preventing further bacterial growth and its multiplication, but it never kills bacteria. That means it only stops the growth of bacteria but does not take its life.
Basilar Membrane: The basic structure of the Corti, an organ in the ear encompassed of sensory receptors present in the cochlea of the inner ear, is the basilar membrane. Its receptors help in hearing and also results in causing depolarization of hair cells. Besides, it plays a significant role in separating two types of liquids present in the cochlea’s coil tubes.
Benign Tumor: The cluster of cells forming at any part of the human body but are not cancerous by nature is a medical condition, benign tumour. Almost all benign tumours are not dangerous except leiomyomas and adenomas.
Beta DNA: The common double-stranded DNA in the right-handed helix and exists under biological and regular conditions is beta DNA.
Beta-Blocker: The class of medicinal drugs, otherwise known as beta-adrenergic blocking agents primarily known for protecting the heart from abnormal conditions, are beta-blockers. They work mainly by stopping the release of stress hormones like noradrenaline and adrenaline. This process helps lower the stress on the heart’s blood vessels, which eventually reduces the pressure of blood inside the heart.
Bicarbonate: Bicarbonate is nothing but hydrogen carbonate with the chemical formula HCO – 3. Simply, it the transitional product resulting during the carbonic acid deprotonation. And it plays a significant role in the pH buffering system both biochemically and physiologically.
Bile Juice: Bile is the excretory product present in the liver. It is a fluid kind excreted from the liver and stored in the gall bladder. It is present in almost all sorts of vertebrates, and the significant function of bile is aiding digestion. And it appears orange-yellowish by colour with a bitter taste.
Bi-Chromatics: The mechanism of a device which breaks the light into two different wavelength and analyses the two wavelengths at the same point of time is bi-chromatics.
Bilirubin: Bilirubin is the medical term that refers to the pigment kind of substance produced by the breakdown of red blood cells. It is yellowish-orange in colour, and after releasing into the body from blood, it enters the liver. And there, bilirubin changes its chemical composition, and with the help of the liver, it passes through poop excreted by humans in the form of bile.
Bio-Augmentation: The introduction of specialized microbial cultures, such as bacterial cultures, to increase the contaminant degradation rate’s speed is Bio-Augmentation. In this process, the bacterial cultures are specially selected and standardized under typical and well-defined conditions.
Binomial Theorem: Binomial theorem is an algebraic expression in the form of a formula to find the term of power values such as (a+b)ⁿ.
Bio-Energetics: In cell biology and biochemistry, bio-energetics is the study of energy changes happening during biological organisms’ chemical reactions. This study clearly describes chemical bonds’ properties regarding energy transformations, emission, and processing in a biochemical reaction.
Biodiversity: An ecosystem that consists of various living species on Earth and describes the significance of their role is biodiversity. Biodiversity helps in maintaining the sustainability of all living species naturally and ensure productivity in the ecosystem.
Biogeography: Biogeography is the significant branch in molecular biology which deals with the geographic distribution of ecosystems. It is mainly concerned with studying different plant and animal species belonging to a particular geological time.
Bio Informatics: The branch of applied science that utilizes computational technology to detect, collect, analyze, and record the data of chromosomal codes is bioinformatics. This branch is famous for studying complex biological, genetic codes in the fields of proteomics and genomics.
Biologics: Biologics are nothing but biologic medical products or biopharmaceuticals like medical drugs, human-made from biological causes. These medications are assertive by nature and treat a wide range of medical conditions. Cells, tissues, DNA, proteins and sugars from living organisms are the primary source for manufacturing biologics.
Biotechnology: The branch of science which exploits the biological processes depending on the scientific applications to produce new products like hormones is biotechnology. This study mainly works on the genetic information of living organisms and its derivatives for extracting new products.
Bioluminescence: The type of light only emitting from living organisms based on natural mechanisms happening inside their bodies is Bioluminescence. The creatures or organisms which produce Bioluminescence light are bioluminescent. Fireflies are the best examples of a bioluminescent creature as they make Bioluminescence light.
Biopsy: The process of collecting living cells and tissues from the human body to examine cancer cells’ presence is a biopsy. It is a medical procedure generally performed by an interventional cardiologist or radiologist to collect sample tissues. The biopsy is the procedure related to cancer detection only.
Blastoderm: The group of cells arranged in the form of a layer and originated from blastula and present as the top layer of yolk part of an egg is blastoderm.
Blastocyst: The human embryonic stage formed after 6 days to fertilize reproductive cells is nothing but blastocyst. It is the significant helpful stage for the implantation of fertilized cells into the uterus. It consists of a cluster of cells from which an embryo develops.
Blastula: The continuous process of cleavage happening during the development of the embryo of living organism results in blastula formation. It is a hollow like structure present around the blastocoel, liquid-filled fissure. And the cells of the blastula forms the blastoderm layer in the embryonic stage.
Blastopore: The open cavity on the gastrula formed during the embryonic phases of a living organism into the archenteron to have exterior contact is the blastopore.
Blood+ Pressure: The heart is an essential organ on which a person’s survival depends on the form of heartbeats. Because it pumps blood and supplies pure blood to the body to respire, each heartbeat helps to pump blood to the arteries for purifying. At this stage, the amount of force experienced by the blood while pushing towards arteries is nothing but blood pressure. If there is any irregularity in your body, then you experience high blood pressure.
Blood: The liquid-like part flowing continuously in the veins of vertebrates’ organs, including humans, is blood. It helps carry nutrient substances like oxygen to the body and send away the waste products out of the body. It appears red colour in humans and different colours in different animals.
Blotting: In molecular biology, blotting is the analyzing technique of transferring a variety of proteins in the presence of electric fields. Such proteins may include DNA and RNA molecules.
Bone: The hard tissue of vertebrates that helps in the functioning of one’s body system is bone. Protecting bodily organs, mineral storage, moving body organs, and production of red and white blood cells are the primary functions of bone.
Bowman’s capsule: The filtration structure with small slits present in the glomerulus with double walls which makes up the nephron is nothing but Bowman’s capsule. The primary function of Bowman’s capsule is to filter the unnecessary fluids and substances to send out of the body in the form of urine. The alternate names for Bowman’s capsule are glomerular capsule or capsular glomeruli, or renal corpuscular capsule.
Brain: The soft nervous tissue present in the skull part of vertebrates to sense the things happening around the body is the brain. The brain is the most vital organ, along with other significant organs like the heart. The central controlling system of the human body is the brain.
Brain Stem: The stem-like part present at the posterior side of the brain is the brain stem. And brain stem helps in connecting the spinal cord to the cerebrum. When human considered, the brain stem encompasses medulla oblongata, midbrain, and cranial nerves. The primary function of the brain stem is to control involuntary actions such as breathing and heartbeat.
Breed: The group of plant or animal species that consists of distinctive characteristics that help produce more plant or animal offsprings is breed.
Bronchoscopy: Bronchoscopy is the medical process of examining the inside of the airways to treat any medical condition in the lungs. A bronchoscope is a thin tube that helps doctors to detect lung disorders.
Branchial Arches: The embryologic structures either in bony or cartilage form present around the pharynx, i.e. throat is nothing but branchial arches.
Bronchi: The trachea part of the respiratory system in humans is the bronchi, which is the chief pathway into the air-exchanging organ, i.e. lungs.
Bronchiole: The human body’s gas-exchanging organ, i.e. lungs, consists of small branches that the bronchi divide into is bronchiole. They are the significant part of the respiratory tract and functions to deliver gases to the lungs’ alveoli.
Botany: Botany is the branch of biology which deals with the science of plants and its parts. The other alternate names for botany include phytology, plant science, and plant biology.
Beaker: A scientific apparatus that helps the laboratory store and measure liquid samples while experimenting is a beaker. Sometimes, it comes with a measuring scale as well.
Bunsen burner: The scientific device which provides heat and is specially designed to use in scientific laboratories is the Bunsen burner.
Burette: Burette is again a scientific apparatus useful in laboratories to drop required amounts of samples into other container using the tap like structure attached to it at the top.
Bolometer: The Bolometer is an electrical instrument that helps analyze and calculate radiant energy emitting from infrared light.
Bathythermograph: The short form of bathythermograph is MBT and popularly known as Mechanical Bathythermograph can be recognized with its torpedo shape. It helps in measuring the water temperature changes in regards to depth.
Bathymeter: Bathymeteris the scientific device that helps in analyzing the sounds and the changes in sound waves happening inside deeper water bodies like oceans.
Baroscope: An instrument that comes with a weather glass and helps measure atmospheric pressure is a baroscope.
Barometer: The barometer is again an air-pressure calculating device. And the instrument that helps in recording the changes in air pressure is a barograph.
Ballistocardiograph: The measuring instrument that measures the ballistic forces in graphical representation is the ballistocardiograph. The other significant function of the ballistocardiograph is measuring the human body’s repetitive motions due to heart rhythms. It works by the principle of calculating the amount of blood pumping through the heart in a particular period.
Babinski Reflex: The responses given to particular stimuli, especially in babies and infants, refer to Babinski reflexes. Mostly, we see this kind of reflexes in the foot region of humans.
Bacterial Artificial Chromosome: The chromosomal sequence fixed up in a DNA molecule to copy specific bacterial DNA sequences is a bacterial artificial chromosome. BAC is the abbreviated form of this chromosome.
Bacillus: The type of bacteria that appears in the shape of a rod-like structure is bacillus. It is a disease-causing bacterium.
Bacillus Thuringiensis: BT, nothing but Bacillus thuringiensis in abbreviated form, is a biological pesticide that kills insects and other germs.
Back Mutation: The alteration happening in the existing mutant gene to achieve the original genomic sequence is back mutation. It is generally helpful in restoring the original nucleotide pairs.
Backcross: Backcross is the term referring to the process of crossing an individual with the other that shows the same genetic characteristics, such as either of the parents.
Bacterial Lawn: The growth of bacterial colonies on the top layer of a sample, i.e. a medium which supports development in a petri dish, refers to bacterial lawn.
Bacteriophage: Bacteriophages are viruses that are capable of infecting bacteria and also replicates inside them. These viruses help in researches conducting in the field of microbiology.
Bacteriostat: The chemical compound which kills the growth of bacteria by keeping it alive is Bacteriostat.
Balanced Lethal System: The recessive genes of an organism responsible for the death of other organisms helps balance the stable state of chromosomal combination in heterozygotes.
Balanced Polymorphism: The phenomenon of maintaining stable equilibrium between two morphs present in a population balances polymorphism.
Balbiani Ring: The more extensive area of chromosomal puffs which reveal gene transcription, mainly belonging to RNA synthesis, is the balbiani ring. Polytene chromosomes mostly associate with the balbiani ring to identify tiny chromosomes taxonomically.
Barbiturates: The chemical composites derived from barbituric acid to induce sleep in humans or sedation purposes denote barbiturates. However, these compounds are always in need of correct dose regulations because they cause a significant impact on human health when taken in slightly larger doses.
Bark: The tissues of large trees appearing outside to the naked eye and are responsible for the trees’ growth is bark.
Barr Body: The female nuclei containing lethargic X-chromosomes in small sizes and dense quantities is Barr body. These structures help detect the genetic femaleness and control the gene transcription in the X-linked gene sequences.
Basal Body: The protein structures derived from the eukaryotic cells and are responsible for developing axonemes are basal bodies.
Basal Ganglia: Basal ganglia is a group name to the cells of nerves present in the brain that help improve motor skills and functions. Such motor functions include expressing emotions, behaviour, feelings, etc. Any disruption in the production and functioning of these cells leads to many disorders in regards to movement.
Base: Base is one among several molecules that participate in the formation of RNA and DNA molecules.
Base Analogue: Base analogues are the substitutes as they replace the base molecules in the synthesis of DNA and RNA molecules. These analogues not only returns but also cause gene transcription and results in different structures by altering the base nucleotide pairs. 5-bromouracil is the best example of base analogue.
Base Ionization Constant: The value that tells the rate of ionization of a base is the base ionization constant. Kb represents the importance of this equilibrium constant. Higher Kb values refer to the stronger bases, while the lower values refers to weak bases.
Base Pair: Base pairs are the fundamental blocks of both DNA and RNA present in double-stranded. By nature, these contain nitrogen molecules bound together using hydrogen bonds. Such pairs help information about the structure of RNA and DNA.
Base Population: The reference population recorded at the starting period to calculate the current population using technical data is base population.
Base Sequence: The sequence of particular nucleotide base pairs present in the DNA double helix that carries the genetic information is simply a base sequence.
Basic Oxides: The oxides which interact with aqueous solutions and exhibits the essential properties in the resulting product are basic oxides. For E.g. Na2O is the best basic oxide example.
Basic Solution: The type of solution consists of hydroxide ions in higher quantities and reveals the pH level from 7 to 14 is nothing but a base solution.
Basidia: Fungi produces a specific type of spore-bearing structures which appear in club shape. These structures refer to basidia or basidium.
Basidiomycetes: Basidiomycetes are the fungi that consist of hyphae that produce basidium for sexual reproduction.
Basilar Membrane: The membrane layer present inside the ear, i.e. around the cochlea, helps separate liquid-filled tubes is the basilar membrane.
Batch Testing: The technique of analyzing a batch of multiple specimens in the scientific laboratory to save time and space is batch testing.
Back Cross 1: Back cross 1, represented by BC1, refers to the cross between first-generation individuals with their natural parent breeds.
Branched DNA Assay: The non-enzymatic means of technology used for detecting unique nucleotide molecules present in branched DNA investigations is Branched DNA Assay.
Bead Theory: The theory which failed to explain that chromosomes arranged in the form of a line of beads in a necklace is bead theory.
Brain Electrical Activity Mapping: The non-invasive technique of diagnosing and analyzing neuropsychiatric diseases like dementia, epilepsy, dyslexia, brain tumours, etc., is brain electrical activity mapping. This instrument shows its results by working along with a computer-based technology, i.e. altering data into coloured topographical maps.
Benzodiazepine: The class of drugs that act as sedative helps treat persons suffering from sleep and anxiety disorders.
Beta-Galactosidase: The enzyme, which is also referred to as beta-gal or β-gal, catalyzes the hydrolysis reaction of β-galactosides and breaks down into galactose and glucose molecules is beta-galactosidase.
Beta-galactoside Acetyltransferase: Beta-galactoside acetyltransferase is the enzyme that helps for the conversion of acetyl-CoA into glucosides, lactosides, and galactosides.
Beta-galactoside Permease: An enzyme that consists of lacY gene proteins helps in glycolysis, binding galactoside molecules, breaking disaccharide lactose into glucose, and galactose is beta-galactoside permease.
β-Glucan: The assembly of β-D-glucose polysaccharides forming an enzyme to deactivate cephalosporins, β-lactam antibiotics, and penicillins is β-glucan.
Beta-Lactamase: The enzymes which can resist the impact of carbapenems, penicillins, etc. The antibiotics made of beta-lactamase works by preventing the peptidoglycan layer synthesis, which is crucial for bacterial cell walls’ growth.
Beta Oxidation: The metabolic process of converting long chains of fatty acids into Acetyl-CoA, a significant molecule to perform Kreb’s cycle in mitochondria, is beta-oxidation.
β-Pleated Sheet: The secondary protein structure made of amino acids connected laterally by hydrogen bonds is β-pleated sheet.
Biolistic: The bombarding process of introducing nucleic acid into the cells at high speed using tiny projectiles coated with DNA is biolistic.
Biogeochemical Cycles: The cycling process of either geological or biological substances to recycle the necessary chemicals between biotic and abiotic factors on Earth is a biogeochemical cycle. Carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, oxygen cycle, and water cycle are the three main types of biogeochemical cycles.
Binary Fission: Asexual reproduction of dividing parent cell into two similar daughter cells is binary fission. E.g. The class of prokaryotic organisms undergo binary fission and produce daughter cells capable of growing to parent cells’ size.
Biomass: The renewable organic substance derived from either animals or plants valid for manufacturing fuel products is biomass. Ex: Energy, Wood, farms, energy crops, etc.
Bipedalism: The biological process of locomotive motion usually seen in terrestrial animals with the help of front two limbs or legs is bipedalism.
Bryophyte: The type of plants that do not contain vessels refers to bryophytes. For ex: Hornworts, mosses, liverworts.
Bronchoconstriction: The contraction of bronchial smooth muscles because of long acquaintance to the external chemicals or other irritants denotes the medical condition, bronchoconstriction.
Buoyant Density: The rate of the floating capacity of a substance kept in another solution using the concept of buoyancy is buoyancy density. And both the substances separate from each other because of the differences in their densities.
Bursae: Bursae are the liquid-filled sac-like structures present inside the joints of the human body. Mostly, we see bursae in the joints present near the places where skin, tendons, and muscle tissues connect to the bones.
Bulbourethral Glands: The pear-shaped exocrine glands located at the place where urethra present in the male human body are bulbourethral glands. And these glands produce a sticky kind of substance known as mucus.
Bulk Selection: The selection process of self-pollinated species during cross-breeding refers to a bulk selection.
Bulked Segregant Analysis: The laboratory technique of detecting specific genetic markers that support mutant genotype is bulked segregant analysis. And this technique furtherly helps in diagnosing genes resisting disease susceptibility.