Science Words that Start With Letter F (Free Worksheet Included)

In this article, we will explore science words that start with letter "F." There are many interesting science words that start with letter "F" such as friction, fluoride and fractal.

Did you know that science is all about exploring the world around us? Science words that start with the letter F can be found all around us.

Some of these are fiber optics, fluids, friction, fission, fossil fuels, and fermentation. These words can help you understand more about science and how it impacts your everyday life.

So, let us learn science in the form of words because science is all about various terms, definitions, Scientific words can be intimidating and seem hard to understand, and I get it!

Scientific words are typically defined with a lot of jargon that can leave you scratching your head.

However, there are some scientific words that you might know that do not require any explanation. If you’re interested in learning more about these kinds of words, read on!

Glossary of Science Words that Start with Letter ‘F’

Chemistry Words starting with F

F-Orbital: Every atomic nucleus consists of atomic orbitals revolving around it and which come in different names. F-orbital is one such atomic orbital that fits the electrons that exhibit wave-like behavior in an atom. And the electrons in this orbital show quantum angular momentum ℓ=3. F-orbitals look complex in filling the electrons but follow the same rules followed by the p and d orbitals of an atom. 

Facilitated Diffusion: Facilitated diffusion is otherwise popular as passive-mediated transport and facilitated transport. It is the technique of transporting molecules and ions through the plasma membrane but with the help of integral protein membranes like carriers and channels. And this process of molecule diffusion is spontaneous and only happens through the particular natural membrane.

F-Subshell: In chemistry, f-subshells are the shells that hold 14 electrons with angular momentum quantum number ℓ = 3. Usually, we see f-subshells in the fourth and major energy levels. Every f subshell consists of seven atomic orbitals to fit 14 electrons. 

Face-Centred Cubic Structure: Face-centered cubic is noted as FCC in short form denotes the cubic lattices that possess eight corners corresponding to the face positions as well. Face-centered cubic structures are the crystal unit cells that consist of similar atoms at every corner and one at the middle of each face. 

Fahrenheit: Fahrenheitis the temperature unit denoted by the symbol °F. The name was given after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel FahrenheitAnd this temperature unit is been in use mostly by the people of the United States. 0 °F, 32 °F, and 212 °F are the three calibration points on which Fahrenheit defines a few concepts. 

Fahrenheit Temperature Scale: Fahrenheit temperature scale is the temperature scale useful for measuring various temperature changes happening scientifically. It is been in use worldwide and especially in the United States. 1/180 is the standard range between the freezing and boiling points of water i.e. 32 °F and 212 °F. 

Faraday: Faraday is the measuring unit that determines the electric charge equivalent to the total charge on one mole of electrons. The letter ‘F’ denotes the charging unit, Faraday. One faraday is equal to 96,487 coulombs. 

Faraday Shield: Faraday shield, also famous as a faraday cage is an inclusion that helps in restricting electromagnetic fields. This phenomenon helps in understanding the concepts of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. 

Faraday Constant: Faraday constant is a chemical and physical constant that determines the values of the number of electric charges present per one mole of electrons. It is named after the scientist Michael Faraday and denoted by the symbol ‘F’. Faraday’s constant value is equal to 96 485.3329 s A/mol. 

Farad: Farad is the base and standard unit that determines the values of electrical capacitance. Electrical capacitance is the capacity of an object that preserves a certain amount of electric charges. The name was given after the English physicist Michael Faraday and it is an SI-derived unit. One farad is equivalent to s4 A2/kg m2 where; A= Ampere, m= meter, s= second, kg= Kilogram.

Family: Family is the term given to a group of chemical elements that exhibit identical chemical properties in the field of chemistry. Forex: The vertical column of the periodic table refers to the term ‘family’. And these families are also popular with the term ‘Groups’. Mainly, there are four chemical families in the periodic table as IA family, IIA family, VIIA family, and VIIA family. And the noble gas family is the family of elements belonging to group 18 in the periodic table.

Fatty Acid: In biochemistry, fatty acids are nothing but carboxylic acids which consist of either an unsaturated or saturated hydrocarbon chain. The general molecular formula that every fatty acid follows is CH3 (CH2)x COOH and consists of an even number of carbon atoms in the aliphatic chain. The letter ‘X’ at the subscript position in the formula represents the number of carbon atoms in the aliphatic chain. Ex: Fats, cholesterols, oils, and steroids.

Fat: The extra energy in the body refers to the term ‘fat’, which is mostly present in living organisms including humans and certain types of food. By nature, fats are insoluble in water and highly soluble in organic solvents. Also, any mixture of compounds that contain tri-esters of glycerol denotes fat molecules. Under cold conditions, fats stay in the solid matter while in hot conditions, fats remain in liquid form.

Feedstock: Feedstock is the unprocessed raw material used for the manufacture of an industrial process by fuelling the industrial machines. Mostly, it is the basic material useful for producing a variety of goods and other industrial products. Forex: Crude oil helps in producing gasoline, which helps in the production of ethanol, which produces bio-diesel.

Fermentation: The biological process that mainly helps for the metabolism of organic substrates in living organisms is fermentation. This process involves a variety of chemical changes with the help of enzymes which work as catalysts to the chemical reactions. In biochemistry, the term fermentation refers to the separation process of energy from sugars in the absence of oxygen.

Ex: The fermentation process appears in the form of foam during the manufacture of wine and beer. Lactic acid fermentation, ethanol fermentation, and acetic acid fermentation are the three main types of fermentation.

Femto: Femto is the prefix term used as a unit in the metric system of units associated with 10−15. The Danish word ‘femten’ means fifteen, from which the word ‘femto’ is derived. The letter ‘F denotes femto unit and the size of the nucleus of a hydrogen atom is around 1 fm or 1 x 10-15 m.

Fermium: Fermium is the name given to the chemical element that has the atomic number 100 and the symbol ‘Fm’. It is not a natural element and hence synthesized from the bombardment of neutrons of lighter elements. Since it is available in lesser quantities, it is useful only for scientific research.

Ferric: The ion form of iron element when present in its +3 oxidation state denotes the term ‘ferric’. Fe3+ is the general formula of ferric.

Ferrate: Ferrate is a compound consisting of inorganic and polyatomic anions with the molecular formula [FeO4]2−. By nature, this compound is stable to the water oxidation process and is photosensitive. The uses of ferrate compounds include destroying pathogens acting on humans like viruses, bacteria, etc., and keep the toxic drugs and other poisonous materials out of action.

Ferrous: Ferrous is the chemical term used for the ions of iron that have a +2 oxidation state. The iron ion is denoted as Fe2+ when it is in a ferrous state. The materials like steel, cast iron, pig iron, aluminum, etc. are the best examples of ferrous.

Ferrum: Ferrum is nothing but the Latin word which represents iron. The symbol Fe denotes the iron compound.

First Law of Thermodynamics: The law which states that energy is neither created nor destroyed but works in the form of two types i.e. heat energy and energy in work is the first law of thermodynamics. This law is otherwise well-known with the name ‘Law of Conservation of Energy’ in thermodynamics. Finally, it states that the neighboring energy and complete energy of a system remain persistent.

Filtration: Filtration is a separating process useful for the extraction of solids from liquid and gaseous substances. This process can be either physical or chemical. The filtrate is the leftover liquid substance that remains after the process of filtration.

Fire: Combustion is an exothermic chemical reaction that happens when the material undergoes an oxidation process. The reaction product of such combustion processes in the form of heat and light is nothing but fire.

Fire Retardant: The chemical substances which help in preventing or reducing the spread and intensity of fire are fire retardants. And such chemical substances are derived from the interaction between foaming agents and wetting agents. Forex: Bromine and Chlorine are examples of halogenated flame retardants.

Fire Point: The point at which there are low degrees of temperature that helps vapor molecules to still support the combustion reaction is the fire point.

Fission: The nuclear process of classifying the nucleus of an atom into its daughter nuclei i.e. lighter and smaller along with the release of a certain amount of energy is nothing but fission. Fission is a significant process in nuclear chemistry and physics that is otherwise popular as radioactive decay or nuclear reaction.

Fluorescence: The phenomenon of luminescence exhibiting by a substance is fluorescence. In detail, the ability of a substance to absorb light in the form of electromagnetic radiation and emitting light is fluorescence. The light emitted is electromagnetic radiation with a longer wavelength and hence possesses fewer energy levels than the light absorbed.

The reason behind the ‘Fluorescence’ phenomenon is the exciting behavior of atoms in a substance and the property of emitting the visible light back. Ex: Fluorescent lights and objects available in the market emit light when exposed to sunlight.

Flammable: The term flammable denotes such property which is easy to set on fire. And if such property is associated with any substance, then that substance refers to a flammable substance. These substances tend to set fire easily even at ambient temperature. The other name for flammable substances is combustible substances that catch fire easily and immediately when exposed to fire.

Fluid: Fluid is a state of matter which encompasses liquid, gas, and plasma substances and deforms under external pressure. In biology, fluid is a substance that relates to sexuality i.e. it determines the change in sexual behavior over time and according to the situation.

Flame Test: In chemistry, the flame test is a technique to analyze the presence of metalloid ions or metals in ionic compounds. This qualitative test works by detecting a particular element’s emission spectrum. And depending on the temperature readings, the flame test ends up emitting different colored flames.

Flerovium: The chemical element in the periodic table with atomic number 114 takes the chemical name, flerovium. It holds the symbol ‘FI’ and is super-heavy. It is not a natural element but an artificial radioactive element. However, it does not have any biological role and is even found in nuclear reactors in small amounts.

Flash Point: The point at which the chemical substance gets evaporated and can create fire in the air is nothing but flashpoint. If a chemical substance exhibits fewer flashpoints, then it tends to create more flames.

Fluoridated Hydrocarbon: The organic compounds either in the form of liquid or gas and consisting of more than one fluorine atom replacing the hydrogen atoms in it are fluorinated hydrocarbons. We can find fluorinated hydrocarbons in aerosol propellants and refrigerants. In biology, fluorinated hydrocarbons make the myocardium aware of the endogenous catecholamines, causing arrhythmias is a fluorinated hydrocarbon.

Fluorine: The element in the periodic table which holds atomic number 9 and symbol ‘F’ is fluorine. It is a poisonous element and exists in the form of gas under standard conditions. By nature, it is very light and pale yellow. This element belongs to the halogen group and is extremely reactive. Fluorine plays a major role in nuclear power plants, electric tower insulations, etching glass, and dental health.

Fluorination: The chemical treatment process of introducing fluorinated atoms into a substance is fluorination. Also, the term fluorination denotes the process of packing plastic containers which contain different chemical materials.

Fluorocarbon: In organic chemistry, fluorocarbons are the organic compounds encompassed of carbon chain polymers associated with at least one or more fluorine atoms. The other popular names for fluorocarbons are PFC’s i.e. perfluorocarbons and organofluoride compounds. The general formula of these compounds is CxFy. The formula itself says fluorocarbon atoms consist of only carbon and fluorine molecules. We see these compounds in household products as waterproof agents like sealants, lubricants, and leather conditioners.

Force: In the field of physics and mechanics, force is the extra pressure created on an object with a certain mass to move from one place to another. So, any work action on an object or living thing causing motion and distortion of that particular thing is nothing but force. Also, the push and pull actions upon a material, resulting to get contact with neighboring objects are also ‘force’.

Newton is the SI unit of force which consists of both direction and magnitude.

Foam: The product formed when gas or air bubbles get trapped inside a solid or liquid substance is just ‘foam’. For example, A bath sponge, Styrofoam, head on a glass of beer, and whipped cream are the best and common examples of foam. The chemical composition of foam materials includes 40% polyisocyanates, 10% water, and 50% polyol. Soap bubbles also come under foam substances and are well-known for the term ‘suds’.

Formal Charge: Formal charges are considered fake charges since these charges are determined based on the assumption of equally distributing electrons on an atom. In chemistry, formal charge is calculated assuming that all the chemical bonds in a molecule of atoms equally share the electrons. But officially, the difference between the electrons associated with the chemical bonds of an atom and the valence electrons on it is a formal charge.

FC = V-N-B/2. In this formula, FC=Formal Charge, V= Number of Valence Electrons, N= Number of non-bonding valence electrons, B= Total Number of electrons shared in chemical bonds.

Formation Reaction: The type of chemical reaction between the reactant molecules to yield one mole of product is a formation reaction. Let us understand with a simple example:

Hydrogen and oxygen are the constituent elements involved in the reaction to form water: Here is the formula;

2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O

And here is the formation reaction of this process:

H2 + ½ O2 → H2O

Formalin: The colorless liquid form of formaldehyde is nothing but formalin. It works as a preservative compound during biological studies. To put it simply, when you keep formaldehyde in water, then it is formalin. The main uses of formalin include: used as an industrial disinfectant, preservative in funeral homes, certain food substances, cosmetics, antiseptics, and medical labs.

Formula Mass: Every organic compound exists with a particular empirical formula. And the total mass of atoms based on their atomic weights in the empirical formula makes up formula mass. It is otherwise popular as formula weight and molecular mass (when it is a covalent compound). And the units of formula mass are in atomic mass units i.e. ‘am.

For example: Consider Glucose compound; the empirical formula is CH2O since the molecular formula is C6H12O6. For this compound the formula weight is (12) + 2(1) + 16 = 30 amu.

Francium: Francium is the chemical term given to the chemical element in the periodic table that has atomic number 87 and the symbol ‘Fr’. By nature, it is most stable with highly reactive property and its most stable isotope is francium-223. And it was mentioned as Eka-caesium during the times before its discovery.

Francium is highly useful for chemical research on atomic structures and spectroscopic experiments. Also in the medical field, it plays a major role in treating cancers.

Fractional Distillation: The separation process that extracts the chemical constituents present in a chemical mixture taking their boiling points as reference is fractional distillation. This process works on the principle of the heating chemical mixture to a temperature at which the components start separating in the form of vapors. For example, Gasoline is separated from crude oil through the fractional distillation process.

Free Electron: An electron is a charged particle surrounding an atom but does not attach to it permanently.

Free Radical: Free radicles are molecular species such as a molecule or ion consisting of unpaired valence electrons and able to exist independently. Examples of free radicles include Hydrogen peroxide, Nitric oxide radical, Superoxide anion radical, Hypochlorite, and Peroxynitrite radical.

Free Energy: The quantity of energy required to perform an action or work in a thermodynamic system is free energy.

Freezing: The process of converting a liquid substance into a solid substance at very fewer temperatures is freezing. This process works only when there is a lowered temperature below the fluid substance’s freezing point. The mechanism of converting liquid to solid through the freezing process says: the molecules in the liquid cool down and position themselves in a fixed point like solid molecules.

Freezing Point: The freezing point is the point of the temperature scale at which the fluid substances convert into solid substances. Freezing and melting points are never similar and do not confuse these two terms.

Frequency: Frequency is a term that refers to the repeated occurrences of something per unit of time. Hertz is the SI unit of frequency.

Freezing Point Depression: Freezing point depression explains the reason behind the lowering of the freezing point of a liquid (solvent) when a solute is added. For example, ordinary saltwater exhibits a lower freezing point than the freezing point of pure water.

Friable: Any substance which tends to break down or crumble easily with just using little forces refers to friable. Examples of friable materials are sandstone and Styrofoam.

Fullerenes: The compound of carbon atoms connected through single or double bonds to create a close mesh to produce spherical-like rings using around seven atoms is Fullerenes. Ex: C60 is a spherical fullerene known as buckminsterfullerenes or buckyballs.

Fuel Cell: Fuel cells are the electrochemical cells that undergo redox reactions and transform oxidizing agents and chemical energy released into electricity.

Full Range Naphtha: The product formed when 5- to 12-carbon hydrocarbons simmered at temperatures ranging between 30 °C and 200 °C is full-range naphtha.

Fungicide: The chemical substances i.e. pesticides used to control or eradicate the evolution of fungi and their spores are nothing but fungicides. These pesticides attack the fungal cells that provide energy and cell membranes and thus kill the damage-causing fungi.

Fusion: In chemistry, the daughter nuclei of an atom combine to produce the parent nucleus by releasing a certain amount of energy and this process is fusion.

Furanose: Furanose is a chemical term collectively used for the group of simple sugar molecules that possesses a five-membered ring system. In this five-membered ring system, four atoms are carbon atoms and one is an oxygen atom.

Functional Moiety: In organic chemistry, the functional moiety is the part of a chemical compound that is recognized especially with a name since it involves specific chemical reactions. Functional moiety is otherwise known as a functional group such as alcohol –OH and –COH functional groups. 

Science Instruments with Letter F

Fathometer: A fathometer is a type of echo sounder device that helps in measuring the depth of the underwaters using sound waves. This device lets the sound waves travel from the surface of the water body into the bottom of the water body and records the echo of the sound waves. Thus, it tells the depth of the underwater bodies. In addition, it is also very much useful in offshore localities to measure the rise and fall of the tides.

Foci Meter: Foci meter is an ophthalmic instrument, otherwise popular with other names that include vertometer, lensometer, and lensmeter. The optometrists and opticians use this device to measure the prescription of the lens used in spectacles or eyeglasses. Many foci meters can also help the optician to orient and mount the perfect lens in the frames. In addition, it also helps in checking the contact lens’s power.

Fiberscope: Fiberscope, an optical instrument flexible by nature is useful for inspecting difficult-to-reach places such as the human body, large machines, etc.

Fluoroscope: A device that uses imaging techniques to capture X-ray images even in the absence of X-photography is fluoroscope.

Floriscope: A device that helps examine the internal parts of flowers is a floriscope.

Fluorimeter: Fluorimeter, otherwise known as fluorometer or spectrofluorometry is useful in analyzing the wavelength distribution and visibility of fluorescence.

Flowmeter: An instrument that is useful for measuring the properties of flowing liquid is a flowmeter. The other popular names of flowmeters include flow rate sensor, flow indicator, flow gauge, and liquid meter.

Science Glossary of F Letter Words 

F-Box: The area inside the human body combined with nearly 50 amino acids and enables the interactions between different proteins.

F Factor: F factor is nothing but the fertility factor, responsible for the conjugation of prokaryotes and permits the DNA entry into the F-cell. Besides, the fertility factor with bacterial chromosome refers to the fertility prime factor.

F-(minus) cell: The female cell that lacks fertility factor in Escherichia coli is the F-minus cell.

F+ (plus) cell: The male that lacks fertility factor in Escherichia coli is the F-plus cell.

Facultative Heterochromatin: The heterochromatin that existed in the homolog of chromosome pair along with euchromatin is facultative.

F2 Generation: The generation of species produced after the interjection process between F1 species refers to F 2 generation.

F1 Generation: The first generation of species produced after the crossing between parent species is the F1 generation.

F protein: F-protein is the fusion responsible for the interaction between the somatic cells under laboratory conditions. It is also helpful in producing new fusogenic vesicles.

F-Pili: In F’, F+ and Hfr bacterium, the hair-like outgrowths that participated in the process of anchorage and conjugation are F-Pilli.

Fasting Glucose Test: This is a type of blood test that tells the plasma glucose levels in a person during fasting state (The condition there is no food for 8-12 hours).

Fanconi’s Anemia: Fanconi’s Anemia is a type of blood disease that results in decreased blood cells, patchy and dark pigmentation on the skin, and short life of RBC in the human body. Hereditary is the main cause of this disease.

Family Selection: The process of selecting or rejecting the genetic cells through breeding techniques and information provided about their progeny is family selection. Besides, the characteristics shared by the family members is a familial trait.

False-Positive: False-positive is a laboratory test result vocabulary that proves the presence of an abnormal condition or disease in a person.

False-Negative: False-positive is again a laboratory test result vocabulary that proves the absence of an abnormal condition or disease in a person.

Fahrenheit: Fahrenheit is a temperature scale that uses Fahrenheit as the unit to describe the freezing point of water at 32° boiling point at 212° at standard conditions.

Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide: Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide, abbreviated as FAD is a coenzyme derived from riboflavin and plays a major role in the energy metabolism process. It plays its role as an electron carrier during the energy transmission process. 

Fe and Ferritin: Fe is the chemical symbol of iron in the periodic table of elements.Iron is an essential element in the human blood system as it carries oxygen from RBC to the heart and lungs. Besides, Ferritin is the preserving form of raw iron. 

Fermentation: The metabolic process in living organisms, through which the carbon-containing compounds are converted into energy is the fermentation process. This process happens by involving the enzymes through chemical changes. Ex: Yeast converts sugar into alcohol and produces energy. 

Fecundity Selection: The selection process that helps in making one particular genotype more fertile is fecundity selection. 

Food and Drug Administration (FDA): FDA is an agency from the U.S., accountable for safeguarding public health by regulating biotechnological food products, medicines, and cosmetics. 

Fatty Acid: In chemistry and biochemistry, fatty acids are the building blocks of fat molecules inside living organisms and makes triglycerides by combining in three number. These fatty acids break down during the digestion process and produce energy for the body. 

Fate Map: The embryo map that shows the areas, where there is much possibility of development of adult species is the fate map. 

Syngamy: The fertilization process that involves both karyogamy and plasmogamy to unite two gametes and make zygotes for new species is syngamy. 

Fingerprint: The unique pattern of impressions present on the surface of an individual’s fingertips refers to fingerprint. Fingerprints are useful for the identification of a particular person using the lines on the fingertips. 

Fimbriae: Fimbriae are the hair-like structures present inside hallow like part of Escherichia coli donor cell. These structures act as a bridge between the cells to transfer DNA during conjugation. 

Filter Enrichment: The procedure of finding out the auxotrophic mutants in the filamentous fungi is nothing but filter enrichment. 

Fibrin: Fibrin is an insoluble protein produced during the blood clotting process and plays a major role in stopping the bleeding process and also helps the hemostasis process. Hemostasis is a wound healing process that involves shrinking blood clots, restoring the blood flow, recovering skin tissues, etc. 

Fibrillation: In the department of cardiology in medical sciences, fibrillation is a medical condition that causes abnormal heartbeats and irregular contraction of the heart muscle. 

Flask Cells: Flask cells are the bottle-shaped cells present at the primary site of the gastrulation and line the archenteron of the epithelial cells. These cells keep up the physical contact even with the outer layers of the embryo though it is present inside the embryo. 

Flanking Region: Flanking region is a specific region where the DNA sequences bind to each other around the specific gene or loci. 

Fixed Breakage Point: The development of heteroduplex DNA at a point by following the breaking process of DNA double helices in the recombination model is fixed breakage point. 

Fixed Allele: As the name suggests, the fixed allele is the only variant allele of that particular gene in a genome population. These alleles are homozygous by nature. 

Fission: Fission is a division process that divides a thing into two or more parts. In biology, fission is an asexual reproduction process through which the parent organism divides into two or more species. However, every species furtherly develops into genetically identical daughter species. 

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH): FISH is a medical technique in the laboratory useful for identifying and tracking the particular DNA structure on a chromosome. It works by mapping the fluorescent tags attached to small fragments of DNA i.e. Probes. 

First Law of Thermodynamics: First law of thermodynamics is the branch of physical sciences that tells the relationship between heat and different forms of energy. It says that heat is nothing but the specific form of energy that works on the laws of conservation of energy. Finally, it concludes that heat energy is neither created nor destroyed. 

Fetus: The embryo after eight weeks of development inside the mammals’ body and until it is born refers to a fetus. In particular, the unborn baby inside the female womb of the humans after the development of the embryo up to eight weeks is a fetus.

Flavin-mononucleotide (FMN): FMN is a mononucleotide coenzyme produced from riboflavin. And hence it is popular with names such as riboflavin mononucleotide, riboflavin-5′-phosphate, and vitamin B2 phosphate. It acts as an oxidoreductase form as well as a complex 1 cofactor in the biological electron transport chain. 

Fluorescence: The emission of light by the excited molecules of a substance that absorbed electromagnetic radiation while transferring from an excited state to ground states is fluorescence. The property of emitting visible or invisible radiation that has a longer wavelength after absorbing shorter wavelengths is also fluorescence. 

Fluorescein: Fluorescein is a molecule that functions as an indicator or dye that has the property of emitting light radiations with a yellowish-green fluorescence. It is helpful for opticians to detect a wide range of eye problems. 

Fluid Mosaic Model: The mosaic model of substances like proteins, phospholipids, cholesterol, and carbohydrates that define the plasma membrane assembly is a fluid mosaic model. This is the most satisfactory model to describe the cell membrane structures by sorting out the inside contents to the outside of the cells.

Fluctuation Test: In microbial genetics, a fluctuation test is used to identify and measure the rate of mutations and nutation type. It works by using chemicals and identifies the mutations that show up because of a lack of selective pressure. 

Flow Cytometry: The laboratory and biological procedure of detecting the size and count of nucleic acids inside the cells is flow cytometry. It works based on the property of absorbing light or fluorescence by biological substances. 

Flavonoids: The cluster of natural metabolites present in grains, barks, roots, flowers, stems, wine, tea, and vegetables are flavonoids. These substances associate with different phenolic structures and control cellular activity by fighting off free radicals. To put it simply, they help in protecting your body from a variety of toxins and stressors from foods. 

Flavins: The cluster of molecules that have a tricyclic ring-like molecular arrangement and naturally cause pigmentation are flavins. Ex: Riboflavin. Flavins help in various biological practices such as dehydrogenation, hydroxylation, and redox reactions.  

Fluoroscopy: Fluoroscopy is a medical instrument that uses imaging techniques to capture the inside area of many human biological systems like digestive, urinary, reproductive, etc. It works by sending the X-ray beam into the body and records the continuous images in the form of X-ray. 

Formylmethionine (fmet): In prokaryotes, fmet is a specific amino acid integrated into the polypeptide chain for the production of proteins. 

Focus Map: A well-made map that defines the blastoderm cells of drosophila developing into adult species according to the information of mosaics. 

Fokker-Planck Equation: In medical sciences, the equation that defines the diffusion process and determines the unplanned genetic drift of gene sequences is Fokker-Planck Equation. In mathematics, it is a differential equation that determines the Brownian motion of a single particle under the influence of unplanned and drag forces. 

Foot Printing: Footprinting is a laboratory practice of detecting nucleic acid lengths by combining them with proteins. In contact with protein, this technique digests the free DNA and the rest is separated and categorized.

Formula Unit: In chemistry, the formula unit describes the empirical formula of solid compounds that share either ionic or covalent bonds. The least possible ratio defines the ionic crystal lattice.

Forensics: Forensics is the medical branch of sciences that uses different scientific procedures and investigations to solve crimes. These procedures work by matching the DNA sequences of crime scene pieces of evidence to the suspects.

Forebrain: The upper part of the brain that includes the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the cerebral hemispheres refers to the forebrain. This part of the brain is responsible for handling sensory information like motor functions, thinking skills, language understanding, etc.

Forward Function: The type of mutation that converts the functional allele (wild type) into the non-functional allele (mutant) refers to the forward function.

Fraternal Twin: The twins given birth at the same time to the single mother by the fertilization of two ova and two sperms are fraternal twins. They share identical characteristics but different genetic information. The sex of the fraternal twins could be either similar or different.

Frameshift Mutation: The type of genetic mutation that happens either by the addition or deletion of nucleotides to the DNA genome is frameshift mutation. This mutation results in the production of a new genetic code. If the mutation disturbs the reading frame that is present after mutation on the DNA sequence, the mutation reads mistakenly.

Frameshift: Frameshift is a mutation that produces nucleotides that are not divisible by three and varies the reading frame during genetic translation.

Fragile-X Syndrome: Fragile X-syndrome is a genetic syndrome that causes intellectual disability in both males and females but males experience mild to severe symptoms. This syndrome is caused due to the changes in a specific gene that is fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene.

Fragile Site: The specific regions on the chromosomes that are likely to brittle and results in the formation of gaps in the DNA sequence is fragile site.

Founder Effect: The occurrence of genetic drift due to the formation of a small population separated from the large parent population is the founder effect. Ex: On the Tristan da Cunha islands, the formation of retinitis pigmentosa in the British colony is the best example that describes the founder effect.

Founder Cells: The initial cells or daughter cells resulting from the asymmetric cell detachments (a kind of stem cell separation array) and develop into an organ type are founder cells.

Free Energy (G): The thermodynamic potential that calculates the quantity of work done at its maximum at standard temperature and pressure in a thermodynamic system is free energy. The other names of free energy are Gibbs energy, Gibbs Function, and Free Enthalpy.

Frequency Histogram: A frequency histogram is the graphical representation of frequencies through vertical columns and data points.

Freezing: Freezing is the process used to convert liquids into solids by emitting heat. The freezing point of water is zero degrees.

Free-Energy Change (DG): At standard temperature and pressure, the amount of heat released or absorbed by a substance during the chemical reaction is free-energy change.

Freeze-Fracture Technique: Free-Fracture Technique in medical sciences is a laboratory method used to diagnose the cell membranes to study the integral membrane proteins. It works by breaking the biological sample and examining it under an electronic microscope. Therefore, it helps in studying the structure of cell membranes and the arrangement of proteins in phospholipids.

Free Radical: A single atom or a cluster of atoms present in a substance and holds unpaired electrons around its nucleus refer to free radicals.

Free Energy of Activation: The energy required to start the chemical reaction between two or more substances is the free energy of activation. Delta G symbol represents the free energy of activation.

Frequency-Dependent Fitness: The evolutionary method of fitness difference of a genotype or phenotype based on the changes happening in the genotype population is frequency-dependent fitness.

Frequency-Dependent Selection: The selection of phenotype or genotype based on the frequency-dependent fitness in a population of genotype is frequency-dependent selection.

Frequency-Interdependent Fitness: The evolutionary process of fitness changes happening irrespective of interactions between the same individuals of a population is frequency-independent fitness.

Frequency-Independent Selection: The selection process of evolution through which the fitness changes of phenotypes or genotypes happen irrespective of the relative frequencies are a frequency-independent selection.

Fungus: The primitive organism that belongs to a eukaryotic family and lacks chlorophyll is nothing but a fungus. Forex: Yeasts, mushrooms, mildew, and Molds. Half of the microorganisms that belong to the fungus family are not harmful and are located inside the soil, human body, air, and water.

Fusion Gene: The hybrid gene is produced due to the interaction between the two independent genes in the fusion gene. And these interaction methods include chromosomal inversion or interstitial deletion and translocation.

Furanose: Furanose is a simple sugar that defines the cluster carbohydrates that share identical chemical structures. This identical chemical structure is a five-membered aromatic structure with four carbon and one oxygen atom.

Fungicide: The chemical substances used to kill and stop the development process of parasitic fungi are fungicides. The other name for fungicides is pesticides but the usage of these pesticides results in crop damage, health damage of humans and animals, etc. 

Frontal Cortex: Frontal cortex is the emotional control center in the brain where higher thinking skills and goal formulation planning happens. 

Frontal Lobes: Frontal lobes are one of the four lobes of the brain separated into pre-frontal, pre-motor, and motor areas. These lobes are the largest in the brain responsible for cognitive functions such as understanding language, managing higher-level body functions, and voluntary movement.

Fundamental Number: Fundamental number tells the exact number of chromosome arms present in the somatic cells.

Functional Group: The functional group is a chemical moiety present in the biochemical substance present in the biological sample.

Fruiting Body: Fruiting body is the specific region in fungi where sexual reproduction of gametes happens and produces spores in bulk amounts.

Functional Genomics: Functional genomics is the study of proteins and resulting genes that play a major role in the biochemical processes of living organisms.

Functional Alleles: Functional alleles exhibit the higher expression characteristics and fail to match respectively during cis-trans match investigation.

Flowstone: The sheet-like mineral deposits present inside the caves of limestone is flowstone.

Foliage: The leafy parts of the plant or a tree refers to foliage.

Fauna: Fauna refers to a specific region where animals form their habitat and geological existence.

Friction: The force exerted during the rubbing or sliding process of two solid or liquid surfaces is nothing but friction.

Fossil Fuel: The fuels produced by natural processes like the decomposition of plants and animals are fossil fuels.

Forecast: The prediction of upcoming events like changes in weather conditions and the financial trend is forecast.

Food Chain: In ecology, the chain that explains the conversion of energy and matter in the form of food from one organism to another is the food chain.

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