Science Words that Start with ‘S’- Glossary

Here is a glossary of science words that start with the letter S. The list includes words from chemistry, biology and other scientific terms and equipment.

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Glossary of Science Words that Start with ‘S’

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Chemistry words starting with S

Biology words starting with S

Scientific generic terms and instruments starting with S

Science Words Starts With Letter S

Chemistry Words Starting with S

Salifiable: Salifiable substances are the alkaline substances that are organic and chemical, shows its skills in counter balancing the effect of acids. And eventually they form salts by reacting with acids. For Example: Ammonia is a salifiable which reacts with acidic compounds and form ammonium salts.

Salt: Salt is the chemical and mineral compound that characterised by the presence of anions and cations, especially of sodium chloride. Actually, we get salt naturally in the form of crystals and is popular with the name rock salt or crystal salt or halite and sometimes known as common salt. Well, in seas, we see abundant quantities of salt. Ex: Nacl, Kcl, etc.

Sal-Ammoniac: Sal-Ammoniac is again an alkaline chemical substance with ammonium chloride. It is an obviously happening mineral compound which you can find in many of the soldering tip tinner and restorers because it is otherwise popular as soldering iron. Also, it is very much useful as ‘soldering flux’.

Salifiable Earths: The metal oxides which are capable of neutralising acid contents in a solution or mixture and results in the formation of salts refer to salifiable earths. For Examples: Silica, Lime, Alumina, etc.

S-Orbital: The sphere around any atomic nucleus consists of different orbitals revolving around it with different names. S-Orbital is one of the main orbital among them which holds spherical shape and symmetric by nature with radial nodes. Well, the letter s in s-orbital stands for ‘Sharp’. And it holds the value of angular momentum quantum number l = 0.

Salt Bridge: In electrochemistry, salt bridge is otherwise known as Ion Bridge, which takes tube shape encompassed of gel form electrolytes. These electrolytes in the salt bridge are responsible for creating and conducting electrical linkage between the two solution mixtures. Mostly, the two solutions mentioned here are acidic and basic solutions. Hence, salt bridge is very much useful in maintaining electric charges balance between the electrons and electrical neutrality between the solutions in a circuit.

Saltpetre: Saltpetre is nothing but the other name of chemical compound ‘Potassium Nitrate’. The molecular formula of potassium nitrate is KNO3. However, any chemical compound which consists of a mixture of nitrates like calcium nitrate (Ca (NO3)2) and sodium nitrate (NaNO3) refers to saltpetre compounds. These saltpetre’s are widely useful in manufacturing fertilizers and explosives.

Salt of Tartar: Salt of Tartar is the deprecated term of a chemically inorganic compound i.e. K₂CO₃, Potassium Carbonate. The alternate name for salt of tartar is white salt, known for its solubility in water. Salt of tartar is widely useful for manufacturing soap powders and glasses.   

Samarium: Samarium is the white silvery metal substance which belongs to lanthanide series in the periodic table and holds atomic number 62 with symbol ‘Sn’. The various uses of this metal element include as a neutron absorber in nuclear reactors, for fixing calcium chloride rocks in optical lasers, and speeds up the metabolism functions.

Saturated: The word ‘saturated’ takes various definitions in science. Let us see one by one below:

1) At constant conditions, any solution which cannot dissolve further any type of solute present in it referred as ‘saturated’.

2) Anything which is full of moisture and being wet stated as saturated.

3) Any organic chemical compounds with no presence of double and triple bonds between carbon atoms is saturated. That means, that particular compound does contains only single bonds between carbon atoms.  

Saponification: Any method involving the reaction between triglycerides and aqueous alkali metals like potassium hydroxide resulting in conversion of fats into soaps is saponification. Any fat substances like oil, lipids, etc. can convert into soaps and alcohols using saponification method along with heating methods. In this process, soaps are nothing but the fatty acid salts whereas fatty acids are monomers of lipid substances.

Saturated Fat: The saturated fatty acid chains which consists of single bonds between all the carbon atoms referred as saturated fats. Biscuits, cakes, sausages, butter, ghee, coconut and palm oil are a few of the examples of saturated fats.

Saturated Solution:Saturated solution is a type of solution which consists of maximum amount of solute that is being dissolved. Soda is the best example to explain saturated solution as it contains carbon dioxide in water.  

Scalar: In mathematics and chemistry, scalar is a physical quantity which only has magnitude but not direction. For ex: Temperature, density, mass, etc. are the perfect instances of scalar quantities.

Scientific Law: The law of science which is packed with various statements that are solely based on scientific observations, analysis, experiments, and calculation refer to scientific law. These laws can describe any science experiment under a certain range of application and applies to all the natural sciences.

Science: Science is a vast subject which deals with the natural world through systematic observation and experimentation. In addition, science helps us understand the world around us based on proper and perfect evidence. Also, it is a particular branch which involves chemistry and physics as well in order to explain many theories.

Scandium: The silvery white chemical element which holds atomic number 21 and symbol ‘Sc’ in chemistry is scandium. It is one of the members of transition metal groups.  

Seaborgium: The chemical element with atomic number 106 and symbol Sg refers to seaborgium. It is an unstable element that are responsible for high energy atomic collisions.

Scientific Method: The systematic method of gaining knowledge on our surroundings based on scientific observation, experimentation, and analysis is scientific method. Through scientific methods we can give perfect and logical reasons to the things that occur both naturally and unnaturally.

Secondary Amide: Any amide compound which consists of nitrogen atoms bonded to the two carbon atoms of its functional group i.e. carbonyl carbon and plain carbon atom. 2° is common notation that represents secondary amide groups.

Secondary Alcohol: Any chemical compound which possess a saturated carbon atom attached to two other carbon atoms along with hydroxyl group i.e. –OH refers to secondary alcohol. For Ex: 2-Propanol and 2-Butanol.

Second: Second is the term useful in various situations based on its multiple definitions. Such as:

a) Second is the term which represents the position of something in a race.

b) A second is the term useful for representing time fractions i.e. one second, two seconds, etc.

c) Second is a formal word useful for supporting a necessary action to further discussions.

Secondary Carbon: Any carbon atom in a chemical compound consisting of two carbon atoms and saturated by nature denotes the secondary carbon. Generally, we see secondary carbon atoms in almost all the hydrocarbon chain groups.

Secondary Amine: The amine groups whose two carbon atoms directly attached to the nitrogen atom represents secondary amines. That means, secondary amines consists of a single hydrogen atom and two alkyl groups.

Secondary Radiation: Secondary radiation is the type of radiation that is emitting from the source of object which already absorbs the radiation from its primary source. It could be either in the form of electromagnetic waves or moving materials. For Ex: Scatter radiation causes a beam to seize with matters resulting in the scattering of X-rays.

Selenium: The chemical element which holds the symbol Se with atomic number 34 in the periodic table is selenium. It is a non-metal element in grey color and shows semi-conducting properties. However in human body, selenium plays important role in maintaining perfect bodily functions.

Second Quantum Number: The second quantum number, denoted as ℓ has two other alternate names such as angular or orbital quantum number. This number refers to the magnitude of the orbital angular momentum of subshells. For ex: The value of ℓ for s-orbital is zero, for p-orbital ℓ=1, for d-orbital it is 2, and finally for f orbital ℓ=3.

Semi-Metal: Semi-metals are the elements which possess both the properties of metals and non-metals. For Ex: Metalloids, which takes important role in dividing the periodic table into to two halves i.e. metals on the left and non-metals on the right.

Sequestrant: In biology, sequestrants are the substances which helps for improving the stability and quality of food materials. And these are a type preservatives, popularly known with the common name, food additives. While in bio-chemistry, these are the stabilizing agents which are helpful for preventing oxidation of fats in the food by forming chelates around the metal ions like copper.

SI: System Internationale is the full form of SI, a unit of standard metric system.

Semipermeable Membrane: Semipermeable membrane is a biological membrane which allows certain solvent particles according to their size through osmosis method. And there is no entry for solute molecules to pass through this membrane.

Side Chain: As the name suggests, side chain is the chain attached to the main or back bone chain of a chemical compound. For Ex: In iso-pentane, butane chain is the core chain while methyl is the side chain.  

Ser: Ser is the short form of a hydrophilic amino acid, Serine. In human body, this amino acid is present in different forms like D-serine and L-serine. L-serine helps for the betterment sleep time while D-serine helps for treating Parkinson disease, schizophrenia plus improves memory as well.

Short-Term Exposure Limit: Short-term exposure limit is the allowed concentration of a substance to which a human can expose to and keeps himself away from any adverse health risks. If a human exposed beyond this average concentration level, then he or she is going to face a lot of health conditions.

Sievert: Sievertrefers to the dose of radiation absorbed by the living tissue of any living organism. In bio-chemistry, it is a unit calculated on the basis of type of tissue and radiation involved and 1 sievert (Sv) = 1 J/kg.

Silica: Silica is a solid, pale and not much reactive substance and is commonly useful for representing the chemical compound silicon dioxide, SiO2. Ex: Quartz and significant constituent of sandstones. Biologically, silica is an important mineral element in human body that provides strength to certain body parts. Such as skin, bone, blood vessels, cartilage.

Sigma Bonds: Sigma bonds are the covalent bonds present in between orbitals of atoms. These bonds stay strong and built by head-on overlapping. Mostly, diatomic molecules reveal sigma bonds within their electron density present around the orbitals of atomic nuclei.

Silicate: The class of chemical compounds which consists of silicon and oxygen in its anion form refers to silicate. Silicates in different forms are useful in manufacturing cement materials, thermal insulating materials, refractories, etc. Ex:  SiO42−

Simple Diffusion: The process of movement of solutesin a solutionthrough a semipermeable membrane but restricted to certain concentration gradient is simple diffusion. For ex: water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, etc. in human body which does not require any energy to pass through the semipermeable membrane.

Silver: The greyish white chemical element which holds atomic number 47 and symbol Ag in periodic table is silver. By nature it is malleable and comes under transition metals group of elements.

Silicon: Silicon is the organic compound with atomic number 14 and holds symbol Si. By nature it is a non-metal element that reveals semi conducting properties and hence used in electric circuits. The purest form of silicon is an amorphous powder and crystal forms.

Single Bond: When there is bond between two atoms in a molecule shares a pair of electrons, then it denoted as single bond. Sometimes, single bonds refer to a type of covalent bonds.

Simple Protein: The protein molecules which yield amino acids through the completion of hydrolysis process denoted as simple proteins. Amino acids are nothing but the constituents of simple proteins.

Single Displacement Reaction: Exchange reaction or single replacement reaction are the other alternate names for single displacement reaction. This reaction refers to the chemical reaction where one reactant substituted completely by another element but within a compound.

For Ex: Cu + AgNO₃ → Cu(NO₃)₂ + Ag↓

              Zn(s) + 2 HCl(aq) → ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)

Simplest Formula: The formula which represents the relation between the elements existing in a chemical compound is simplest formula. And otherwise it is popular with the name empirical formula. Ratios are the main representation of elements of a compound in this formula and are written as subscripts next to the element. Ex: C6H12O6 is the molecular formula of glucose while CH2O is the simplest formula.

Smectic: Smectic refers to the liquid crystal in which the molecules arranged in parallel or well-defined patterns such as layers, rows, and sometimes both. Generally, liquid crystals stay in smectic phase where molecules arranged in long molecular axis i.e. parallel.

Skeletal Structure: A type of molecular structure happens in the form of graph representing the atomic bonds and atoms in a molecule is skeletal structure. In this graphical representation, we see skeletal structures in two dimension form. Where atoms are represented by the symbols of its own elements while bonds are represented in the form of solid lines. For Ex: Double and triple bonds are represented as double and triple horizontal lines.

Smelting: The method of taking out a base metal in the form of an element or compound through the application of heat in the presence of reducing agent to its ore is smelting. Such smelted elements include iron, copper, silver, etc.

Smoke: The gaseous and unburned tiny materials of burning compounds denoted as smoke. Either it is in the form of gas or liquid, it consists of different chemical fumes, tar, ash, and oils. Some are visible to our naked and some may not.

Soft x-rays: The X-rays which exhibits lower energy levels i.e. less than 5 keV referred as soft x-rays.

Smog: The combination of smoke and for along with other atmospheric dust particles form smog. Mostly, we see smog due to the burning process of coal in large amounts. Also, we find this most common type of pollution is seen in urban areas.

Soap: Soap is a mixture of two to three chemical substances, when mixed with water becomes capable of removing soft to hard dirt from dirty surfaces. And these chemical substances are the combination of sodium salts from naturally occurring fatty acids. For example: on the human skin, clothes, objects, etc.

Sol: A continuous dispersion medium i.e. colloidal solution where constituent parts stay in solid form suspended in liquid medium is sol.

Soda Ash: Soda ash is nothing but the inorganic chemical compound i.e. sodium bicarbonate along with its hydrating compounds. It is highly useful in manufacturing paper, soaps, and glass. Also, it is widely useful in controlling pH in water treatments, prevents corrosion, and neutralising acid processes.  

Sodium: Sodium is the extremely reactive chemical element takes atomic number 11 in periodic table with symbol Na. This metal element is alkali by nature and belongs to group 1 elements of the table.

Solid: Solid is a type of fundamental state of matter which maintains its stability by placing its particles tightly within. And hence solids maintain stable volume and shape. A few common examples that define solid include table sugar, salt, ice, rock, glass, wood, plastic, etc.

Solubility Product: Solubility product is nothing but an equilibrium constant which defines the relation between solids and its constituent ions. Ksp represents the solubility product in short form. Ion product and solubility product constant are the other alternate names for solubility product in chemistry.

Solidification: The process of obtaining solid state from other state of matter i.e. liquid state when its freezing point lowers is solidification. Hence, freezing is the alternate term for solidification process.

Solubility: The maximum ability of solution to dissolve all its solute particles in the solvent at constant temperature and resulting in the formation of saturated solution is solubility.  Sugar cubes dissolving in water, tea, and coffee because solubility is the property which helps sugar cubes to dissolve completely in its solvent i.e. tea.

Solute: Generally, solution is a consistent blend of more than two substances and separates its constituents as solute and solvent. Solute is the substance which tends to dissolve in the solvent present in this homogenous mixture of solution. However, we find solute in less quantities compared to solvent molecules.

Solvent: Solvent is also a substance in which solute tends to dissolve but present in higher quantities in a solution.

Solution: A mixture of two or more substances in the form of solutes and solvents homogenously is a solution. And solution may exist in any form of matter. For ex: Brass is the perfect solution present in solid form, aqueous hydrochloric acid is solution in liquid form, and air is the solution in gaseous form.

Sorption: Sorption is a significant method in the fields of both physics and chemistry. This is useful for mixing the molecules of one substance with molecules of different material in different phase. Ex: Sponge immersed in water reveals the property of sorption. Here water represents sorbate since it is the substance getting attached to the sorbent. While sorbent is the sponge on which sorbate attached to.

Specific Heat: The amount of heat required to raise one unit mass of a substance’s temperature by one degree defines specific heat. And it is thermodynamic property which presents the ratio of heat absorbed depending on the amount of absorbed heat. The formula for specific heat is:

Q = mcΔT; c=Specific Heat Capacity, Q=Heat Energy, m=Mass, ΔT=Change in Temperature

Specific Gravity: Specific gravity is nothing but the ratio between the specific gravity of a particular object and density of water. The formula that explains specific gravity is:

SGtrue= ρsample / ρH2O ; ρsample represents density of the sample while ρH2O represents density of water

Specific Heat Capacity: Specific heat capacity is nothing but the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a substance by one kelvin. It almost resembles the specific heat definition as they both are the synonymous words.

Specific Gas Constant: Specific gas constant, denoted by Rspecific is the proportionality constant which we see in ideal gas equation.

Specific Weight: The weight of a substance measured per unit volume of a material denotes specific weight. For ex: Specific weight of water on Earth at 4°C is 9.807 kN/m3 or 62.43 lbf/ft3. ‘γ’ denotes the specific weight value and the formula which explains specific weight is;

γ=ρg; here ‘γ’ isspecific weight, ρ=density, g=standard gravity.

Specific Volume: The amount of volume of an object employed by another substance which is one kilogram by weight refers to specific volume of that particular object. In thermodynamics, the letter ‘v’ represents specific volume of an object and here is the formula;

v= V/m; Here v= Specific Volume, V= Volume, m= Mass

Spectroscopy: The method of learning the absorption and emission properties of light by any kind of matter according to the function of frequency or radiation of wavelengths is spectroscopy. To put it simple, it is the simple process of defying the relation between the matter and electromagnetic radiation absorbed or emitted. It is highly useful for learning the ground electronic configurations, structures and excited states of various atoms and molecules. There are many types of spectroscopy in chemistry, among which Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AE), Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA), Spark or arc (emission) spectroscopy are the three main and basic types.

Spectrum: Spectrum is the band of wavelengths or frequencies of an electromagnetic radiation absorbed or emitted by a substance like atoms and molecules. For ex: we see rainbow in seven different colors because of different frequencies of wavelengths produced by light according to the degree of refraction.

Spectator Ion: The ion which is present in both reactant and product sides of a chemical reaction but in the same form denotes spectator ion of that particular equation. We can observe spectator ions in the reaction between sodium chloride and copper sulphate in aqueous solution.

2 NaCl (aq) + CuSO4 (aq) → 2 Na+ (aq) + SO42- (aq) + CuCl2 (s)

The same reaction in ionic form is as follows;

2 Na+ (aq) + 2 Cl (aq) + Cu2+ (aq) + SO42- (aq) → 2 Na+ (aq) + SO42- (aq) + CuCl2 (s)

In ionic form chemical equation, we can observe the spectator ions of this reaction i.e. sodium (Na+) and sulphate ions (SO42-).

Spin Quantum Number: The quantum number value in atomic physics which states the angular momentum of an electron in its orbit refers to spin quantum number. Ms denotes spin quantum number and the possible values of this number include +1/2 and -1/2. These values are also known as spin up and spin down values.

Spin: Spin, quantum characteristic of electrons relating to its magnitude of angular momentum.

Spirit of Alum: Spirit of alum, otherwise popular with the names oil of vitriol and battery acid. Actually it is the old fashioned name of chemical compound, sulphuric acid (H2SO4). Sulphuric acid is a strong acid formed by distilling solutions of sulphur dioxide or solutions containing potassium aluminium sulphate alums. It is highly useful in large industries as a laboratory agent and is present in dense oil form when highly concentrated. Well, spirit of vitriol is the other old name for sulphuric acid.

Spirit: The active substance in the form vapors released during distillation and collected in the form of liquid matter is spirit. People generally confuse spirits with alcohol but in reality spirits are much stronger than alcoholic drinks available in the market. And spirits contain 35%-40% of alcohol in it and hence referred as standard spirits.

Spontaneous Fission: The radioactive disintegration of nucleus of atoms into more than two neutrons in minor components, defines as spontaneous fission. But these fissions usually occur in atoms which has atomic numbers above 90 in periodic table. And the process happens very slowly in all the atoms but in isotopes it happens moderate to high.

Ex: Cf-252 when goes through spontaneous fission, it releases smaller neutrons such as Xe-140, Ru-108, and 4.

Spirit of Hartshorn: Spirit of Hartshorn is the first chemical name of aqueous solution of ammonia (NH3) in earlier days. Why the name spirit of hartshorn? Because during earlier days ammonia was prepared by distilling the solution obtained from the hooves and horns of deer. And hence, this solution consists of strong smell i.e. pungent and stays colorless.

Spontaneous Process: The spontaneous process is the process that happens naturally on its tree without using any energy from outside surroundings. For ex: A ball rolling down on an incline surface, melting of ice cubes into water, rust formation on iron objects, etc.

Standard Hydrogen Electrode: Standard hydrogen potential is a standard electrode used as a reference for calculating the electrode potentials of different electrodes of oxidation-reduction reactions on a thermodynamic scale. SHE is the abbreviated form of standard hydrogen electrode. Mainly, the SHE’s are useful for determining the half-cell capacity and pH values of electrodes. Well, the value of standard hydrogen electrodes will always be zero.

Stabilizer: Stabilizer is a chemical substance accompany a chemical equation or an addition process such it gets added to another substance. And prevents the change of physical and chemical state properties of a substance by degradation. Mostly, scientists use these stabilizers to prevent unnecessary changes happening in a chemical reaction.

Standard: In chemistry, a standard is a reference substance that has precise concentration or values. These are mainly useful for determining the unknown concentrations and to calibrate instruments

Standard Molar Entropy: Standard molar entropy, usually denotes with the symbol S° denotes the components of a pure substance in one mole quantity and under standard conditions. In a chemical reaction, we can find out S° by calculating the difference between the molar entropies of both reactants and products. Joules per mole Kelvin (J/mol·K) is the SI unit of S°.

Standard Reduction Potential: The specific declined potential of a compound, especially useful for stating the directionality of a chemical reaction is said to be standard reduction potential. E0 denotes the value of standard reduction potential.

For ex: Consider the below chemical reaction: 2 H2O + 2 e → H2 + 2 OH

Here, the reduction potential of water is equal to 1.776 V.

Standard Temperature and Pressure: Standard temperatures and pressures are the conditions which meant to be standard in order to calculate the measurements of various contents happening in an experiment. And these standard conditions are very much helpful in comparing different sets of data and conclude perfect values and results of that particular experiment. 273 K (0° Celsius) represents the standard temperature value whereas 1 atm is the standard pressure value. The short form of standard temperature and pressure is STP.

Standard Oxidation Potential: Standard oxidation potential is the standard value that measures the oxidation potential of a chemical compound in volts. For ex: In a chemical reaction, Ag → Ag+ + e; here Ag oxidizes to Ag+ and measures the oxidation potential value is -0.7996 V.

Standard Solution: Standard solution is the solution which is standardised chemically by adding known concentrations of solute to it. The best standard solutions include sodium oxalate, potassium dichromate, sodium carbonate, etc.

State of Matter: States of matter is nothing but in which state or form the particular matter exists. Basically, we have three different states of matter in everyday life such as solid, liquid, and gas. The examples of these different states of matter are ice (solid), water (liquid), vapors (gas).   

Stannum: The Latin name of tin in chemistry is stannum and is represented with the symbol Sn in periodic table and holds atomic number 50.  

Steam: The gaseous vapor released due to evaporation by boiling or heating liquid substances is nothing but steam. Simply, the vapor phase of aqueous solution is steam. On other hand, STEAM abbreviates for Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics. This is an instructive approach to learn many science concepts and do investigations relating to these fields.

Starch: Starch is a carbohydrate and polysaccharide stored in the plants, especially in wheat, corn, potatoes and rice. Chemically, starch utilises glycosidic bonds with molecular formula (C6H10O5)n to bind glucose molecules.

Steel: An alloy of iron and carbon is nothing but steel. But the chemical composition of steel states that there is more carbon content than other elements like manganese, sulphur, oxygen, and phosphorous.

Steam Distillation: The natural aromatic compounds and volatile substances are naturally sensitive to temperature. And the method of separating or purifying such substances is nothing but steam distillation. Here is the method of separation: take water or steam in distilled apparatus and boil the contents by reducing the boiling points of substances.

Stereoisomer: The isomer molecules which possess identical molecular formulas with same chemical composition but differ in three-dimensional orientations refer to stereo isomers. 1,2-dichloroethene, L-leucine and D-leucine are the perfect example for stereo isomer.

Stereochemistry: Stereochemistry is the branch of chemistry which deals about the three-dimensional orientation of atoms in space in order to form a specific structure to the chiral molecules. Stereo isomerism is the spatial isomerism which characterises by atoms having same sequence of bonds and molecular formula.

Steric Number: The number value used to determine the geometry of molecules is steric number. The basic formula used to determine steric number is: Steric Number = (number of lone electron pairs on the central atom) + (number of atoms bonded to the central atom).

Stere: The initial metric unit which is equal to one cubic meter is stere.

Sterling Silver: Silver is a chemical element but a popular one while manufacturing certain decorations and jewellery items. It holds the symbol Ag and atomic number 47. And an alloy of silver which contains 92.5% of pure silver and 7.5% of other metals such as copper refers to sterling silver.

Steroid: A specific carbon structure, which is specially characterised by the presence of 17 carbon atoms arranged in four different ring like structures is nothing but a steroid. And in biology, steroids are the drugs, highly useful for relaxing inflammations in and on the human body. For Ex: estrogen, testosterone, progesterone, cholesterol

Stock Solution: The highly concentrated solutions used in chemical laboratories in order to perfume some chemical investigations by just diluting it to reduced concentrated solution is stock solution. But it is important to learn how to dilute and maintain specific volume before using it in chemical investigations. In this way, stock solutions are useful for saving your time in labs, helps in saving space, gives the accurate results, and saves preparation time.

Sterol: Lipids, a mixture of steroids plus spirits with a –OH functional group at 3rd position are sterols. For ex: Cholesterol

Stiffness: The property of resisting the changes in the shape by any physical force denotes stiffness of a substance. It is calculated in lbs/in or grams/cm.

Stibium: Stibium, Sb was the term given to the chemical element, antimony. Basically, it is a hazardous metallic element that happens in two different allotropic forms. And it is widely used for strengthening and hardening of alloys and also as semi-conductors.

Strong Acid: Acids like sulphuric acid and nitric acid, capable of ionising completely which literally means 100% in an aqueous solution are strong acids.

Stoichiometry: For every chemical equation, it is crucial to learn the amounts of reactants and products participating. Here comes into the picture i.e. stoichiometry which helps in finding out the exact concentrations of reactants and products. To put it simple, it tells the relation between the number of moles of reactants and products.

Strong Base: The substances in aqueous solution which tend to accept H+ ions and releases OH ions into the solution are string bases. For ex: All Alkaline earth metals and Alkali metals are strong bases. 

Strain: Strain is the type of pressure undergoing by a chemical compound that has ideal geometry, resulting in increasing the molecular potential energy.

Strong Electrolyte: Strong electrolytes are the electrolytes which completely ionises in the solution. These electrolytes remain as a good conductors of electricity in aqueous solution. Ex: Strong acids and strong bases.

Subatomic: Any unit of substance or particle which is smaller in size than an atom’s size is subatomic particle. For Ex: Protons, electrons, and neutrons.

Subshell: Every atom has a nucleus and the electrons of the atom revolve around these nucleus by forming shells. And these shells are divided in to different subshells referred as atomic orbitals. Subshells include: s, p, d, f subshells.

Strontium: The chemical element which comes under alkaline earth metals group and has allotropic crystalline forms refers to strontium. It is silver in color and soft by nature. In addition, it is very sensitive to water and air since it begins tarnishing when contacted with air and highly reactive to water.

Sublimation: The direct transmission process of solid into gaseous phase without the help of liquid state is sublimation. Sublimation reactions happen when temperature and pressure changes occur at point lower than triple point.

Substitution Reaction: In a chemical reaction, when a reactant’s atoms or functional groups or molecules substituted by another reactant’s atoms or molecules, then it is a substitution reaction. Simply, substitution reactions are nothing but single displacement reactions, which is mentioned above already. Have a look.  

Substrate: Substrate is the chemical substance which tends to react with the chemical reagents in order to continue or increase the rate of a chemical reaction. In biochemistry, substrate is a substance on which enzymes acts upon.

Substituent: The atom which substitutes the hydrogen atoms present on chief chain of hydrocarbon are substituents in the field of chemistry. And these substituents act as the moiety of the product molecule.  

Sugar: Any kind of carbohydrate with molecular formula Cn(H2O)n and are soluble by nature plus sweet by taste are nothing but sugar substances. The sugar content which we use for daily purposes is ‘sucrose’ with empirical formula C12H22O11.

Sulphide: The class of inorganic chemical compounds which contain S²⁻ ions in an inorganic anion is sulphide.

Sulphate: The conjugate base happen very often in our everyday lives, characterised by consisting of sulphur atom bonded to four oxygen atoms on four sides of it is sulphate. Also, sulphates are the resulting compounds of double deprotonation of sulfuric acid or deprotonation of bi-sulphate ion. And the formula of sulphate ions is SO₄²-.

Sulphanyl Group: Sulphanyl group, -SH is nothing but the functional group which consists of a sulphur bonded to a hydrogen atom.

Sulphite: Any chemical compound with functional group SO32- is considered as sulphite compounds.  

Super-Acid: Super acid refers to a type of acid which is stronger than pure sulphuric acid i.e. more than 100%. Fluoro-antimonic acid, HSbF6 is the best example for super acid, made up of antimony pentafluoride (SbF5) and hydrogen fluoride (HF).

Sulphur: Sulphur, a tasteless, colorless yellow color non-metal element with atomic number 16 and recognized by symbol S. By nature sulphur element is less reactive to other elements, do not tend to dissolve in water, and conducts poor electricity. However, sulphur is available abundantly in two forms i.e. crystalline and cyclic forms. Crystalline is the elemental form of sulphur whereas cyclic form is the one formed under normal conditions.  

Super-Cooling: At times, some liquids or gases undergoes cooling process by reducing the temperature further down to one’s freezing point. When it happens these liquids and gases turn into crystallised form but do not pass through solid state. And this process is completely a super-cooling process.

Surface Tension: Thepressure or force used in order to make the availability of liquid surface area in larger areas is nothing but surface tension. This is a type of physical property and is the significant characteristic property of liquids. And you can calculate surface tension based on the amount of force required per unit area. For ex: You can observe a few of tiny insects can stand on the surface of water.

Superoxide: Any chemical compound which encompass superoxide ions formed when oxygen loses single electron and becomes O  2 is simply a superoxide.  By nature superoxide compounds are highly reactive and otherwise popular as inorganic radical anion, oxygen radical, and diatomic oxygen ions.

Supernate: The translucent fluid formed as a soluble precipitate from insoluble samples after the processes of sedimentation, centrifugation, and precipitation are supernate compounds.

Supersaturated: The highly concentrated solution formed after making it cool from higher temperatures, also in which solutes present does not precipitate is supersaturated solution. To put it simple, the amount of solid substance present in liquid solvent but in higher amounts i.e. more than the requirement for saturation. Then that solution refers to supersaturated solution.

Surfactant: The substance which lowers the surface tension of a liquid when it gets mixed up with it and thus improves its spreading nature is surfactant. For example: any detergent substance when mixed with water, reduces its surface tension and starts spreading easily. Also in dyeing industries, people use these surfactants in order to make the dye deeply absorbed into the fabric.

Sym-Proportionation: Symproportionation, The opposite reaction to disproportionation reaction where reactants of same elements but with un-identical oxidation states combine to result in new products. The surprising element in this reaction is that the product formed consists of elements with same oxidation numbers.

Suspension: The combination of solid particles in a liquid solution is heterogeneous and also denotes a suspension solution. For ex: Salt in water solution. Salt particles will precipitate at the bottom after some time, which says it is a suspension and heterogeneous mixture.

Syn Addition: A type of addition reaction, in which two moiety groups attached to the same type of bonds such as either double or triple bond is syn addition reaction. And this reaction results in reduction of bond order but by improving the number of substituents.

System International: System International, short formed as SI is the internationally accepted metric system of units. And these units are of different types such as base units like kilo gram, second, ampere, and supplementary units like radian, steradian, etc.

Synthesis Reaction: Synthesis reactions are nothing but the chemical reactions which synthesise new products from two different reactants. For ex: A+B==AB. Here in this reaction, two different reactants A and B reacts chemically and synthesise a new product i.e. AB. These are the most common types of chemical reactions in organic chemistry and otherwise popular as direct combination reactions. But mostly, these synthesis reactions are exothermic since there happens the release of energy to outside.

Syn-Periplanar Conformation: This is a type of conformation used to describe the bond angles of various atoms and groups whose dihedral angle between the atoms remains between +30° and −30°. Syn-periplanar conformation is identical to the characteristics of anti-periplanar conformation.

Biology Words Starting with S

Sandbar: Sand bars, alternatively known as off shore bar, reef, dune, shoal, and spit. It is a long and narrow way of sand in between the sea, partly submerged or visible, present around the mouth of a river. These are the resultants from the forceful waves coming from the beach.

Salinity: Salinity is basically the measuring term used to determine how much salt is present in certain things like seas, human body, etc. In human body, the amount of salt present in body water defines salinity. While in seas, salinity tells about the amount of slat present in one kilo gram of water in the sea. And the term ‘ppt’ denotes salinity which is nothing but unit g / kg.

Satellite: Basically we use the term satellite for both natural and artificial ones. Natural ones include Earth and Moon. while artificial ones include the intentionally sent machines through a fixed orbit into the space in order to get data from the outer space of Earth. Such as Sputnik 1, Chandrayan, etc. So, satellites are usually the bodies which revolve around a new body existing in the same space.

Scientist: Scientist is a person who studies and analyses an area of interest using systemic research studies, scientific knowledge and evidences in order to conclude a hypothesis with accurate information.

Season: Based on typical weather conditions, a year is divided into four main periods known as seasons. The four main seasons include: 1) Spring 2) Autumn 3) Summer 4) Winter.

Sea Floor: Seas are internally classified of many levels which are nothing but sea floors. These are alternatively famous as sea beds.

Sedentary: A lifestyle which is not physically active is sedentary life style while birds when not interested to migrate to new places and remain at the same place also refers as sedentary. 

Sediment: The precipitation either in solid or liquid form present at the bottom of a liquid solution is sediment. For ex: The particles settled down by water, air, and glaciers.

Seepage: The amount of liquid substance releasing out of a porous material is simply popular as seepage.

Seismic: Anything subjecting to earthquake caused by artificial or natural issues termed as seismic. And the branch of science which deals with the study of earthquakes is seismology. The person who studies about the geological effects like seismic waves is seismologist, also called as Earth scientists.

Shard: Shard is a broken piece of rocks, metals and ceramics with sharp corners and faces.

Sensors: Sensors is simply a device which recognizes through its sensor properties and responds to its calculated sense in the form of data.

Soluble: Any compound which has capacity to dissolve completely in aqueous solutions like water is nothing but soluble.

Similarity: The property of having identical properties or being similar to other things refers to similarity.

Sonic: The term is simply used to mention the sound waves created by nature.

Solar: Solar is a term which defines anything coming from the Sun. For ex: Solar energy, the energy coming from the Sun.

Sound: The vibrations that occur either naturally or man-made audible to an animal’s ear including humans is sound. This pressure wave of vibration always travels through a medium like air or water. Well, different objects make different sounds based on the force of wave happening due to the vibration of that particular object.

Species: A set of living organisms that share similar characteristics belonging to the same family termed as species. Well, species are capable of sharing genes and encourages for interbreeding.

Speed: Any object at which rate it is moving either naturally or due to external forces is nothing but speed. The formula of speed is: s=d/t; Here s= speed, d= distance travelled and t= time elapsed.

Sphere: A sphere is a round hard structure which specialises in, the distance from central point to any point on its surface remains same. For Ex: Ball

Spring: Any object which bounces rapidly either upwards or downwards due to some external or internal forces is said to be a spring. It is a physical property of elastic objects. On the other hand, spring is one of the four main seasons of the year which comes before summer and after winter.

Stage: Stage is a point of time at which something happens particularly during growth.

Stalagmites: Continuous dripping of water into the caves forming a large deposits of mineral compound which refers to stalagmite. By appearance, these structures are round and even sometimes sharp with flattened tips inside caves. And those mineral deposits hanging inside caves that have pointed tips are known as stalactites.

Stimulus: Stimulus is a kind of response sensed by living organisms through some specific functions.

Substance: Any kind of matter like water, air, or solid form that exhibits similar properties is a substance. If a substance is made up of chemicals, then it is a chemical substance.

Sulfuric Acid: Sulphuric acid is a strong acid appears oily in texture in pure form and is prepared by oxidising sulphur dioxide solutions. The molecular formula of sulphuric acid is H₂SO₄.

Survival: The state of being alive on this universe is survival.

Surface: The top layer of any object or living thing is surface.

Swamp: The land which always stays moist and partially or entirely submerged with water is swamp.

Symbiosis: The reciprocal and benefited relationship between a groups of living organisms is symbiosis.

Scientific Terms & Instruments List on Letter ‘S’

Synchroscope: The instrument which calculates whether two power systems work synchronously based on the point of degree displayed on the device is synchroscope. Also, it works on the basis of differences in the frequency as well as angle of phase between two machines.

Sympiesometer: A kind of barometer device which helps in measuring the pressure happening while current passing through a circuit is sympiesometer.

Swingometer: Swingometeris an indicating machine used widely in graphic design and in broadcasting field in order to record the swing of votes from one party to another.

Stylometer: Stylometer is an instrument useful for determining the columns.

Stylometry: Stylometry is a part of study on determining the author of some work depending on the style of writing.

Stroboscope: A mechanical device useful for measuring the periodic motion of objects by applying flashes of light at intervals is nothing but stroboscope.

Strabometer: Crossed eyes, otherwise known as strabismus, an eye condition in which people cannot look at one thing at same time and same direction with their two eyes. The science instrument which analyses crossed eye condition is strabometer.

Strabismometer: Squinting is characterisation of humans where one can look at an object very closely that means bringing their eyelids as close as possible to have a clear look. This may also happen when there is bright sunlight falling on the eyes. And the device which helps in analysing the amount of squinting is strabismometer.

Stethoscope: Heart of any living organism makes sounds as part of its functioning. To know the functioning of heart and to listen the sounds of heart, doctors use a science device, which is nothing but stethoscope. It has two tubes supposed to be kept in two ears and at the other end with a round disc kept against the human body.

Stethometer: Stethometer is again another kind of stethoscope which helps in listening the internal sounds made by human body. And these sounds also include the sounds happening during the expansion of chest walls during respiration.

Stereoscope: An instrument which helps in learning the three dimensional angles of two images of single object but captured at two different angles is stereoscope. This device is highly useful in determining the right and left eye views of same image and to observe stereoscopic pair of images.

Stereometer: Stereometer is a kind of volumenometer, useful for determining the earth’s specific gravity by measuring heights. This device utilizes aerial photographs in stereoscopic pairs.

Stenometer: A distance analysing mechanical device connected to a telescope, which is attached to a tripod.

Stauroscope: A kind of optical instrument which processes the light waves in order to determine the crystal structures of a variety of minerals is stauroscope.

Statoscope: Statoscope, a sensitive type of barometer useful for measuring even the small changes happening in the atmospheric pressures. For ex: It is a significant device useful for analysing changes in pressures happening to indicate the altitudes of air-crafts.

Stalagmometer: Stalagmometer, also known as stactometer is a scientific instrument which measures the surface tension of any liquid especially, blood and serum of human body. This instrument works by calculating the number of drops and weight of each and every droplet of that particular liquid.

Stagmometer: A special device which is used specially for calculating only the count of droplets in a liquid per unit volume is stagmometer.

Stadiometer: The therapeutic tool useful for measuring the length i.e. height of humans is stadiometer.

Stactometer: The measuring device that calculates the amount or volume of liquid in terms of drops is stactometer.

Spirometer: A medical equipment used for calculating the amount of air inhaled and exhaled into the lungs per one second is spirometer. Simply it measures the capacity of lungs breathing system.

Spirograph: Spirograph, an instrument which analyses and reveals the changes happening during breathing by lungs. Technically, this device records the data of breathing activities through mathematical curves and lines like graphical representation.

Spinthariscope: Spinthariscope is a significant machine in chemical labs in order to calculate the ionic radiation caused by alpha particles. It gives clear visual experience of observing nuclear interactions.

Sphygmoscope: A medical equipment which gives a great visual demonstration of functioning of pulse beats is nothing but sphygmoscope. It works by raising the level of fluid in a glass tube and passing a beam of light. It represents its collected data in the form of graphical lines.

 Sphygmometer: An apparatus that helps for measuring the arterial blood pressure and hence otherwise known as blood pressure gauge or blood pressure monitor.

Sphygmomanometer: Sphygmomanometer is again identical device useful for measuring blood pressure happening in the arteries.

Sphygmograph: The apparatus used for analysing and recording the data of pulse beats is simply a sphygmograph.

Spherometer: Spherometer is an optical device used to record the circumference of curved surface of spherical objects.

Speedometer: The speed measuring device present on the dash board of any vehicle is speedometer.

Spectroscope: Electromagnetic spectrum is a combination of different colors in the form of light because of different wavelengths. And spectroscope is something that forms and analyses the spectrum formation by light rays dispersion.

Spectrophotometer: The device that is concerned with the measurement of the quantity of light reflected or transmitted by a material is spectrophotometer. And the branch of electromagnetic spectroscopy which measures the function of wavelength emitted by light waves is electromagnetic spectrophotometry. However, these instruments and study are helpful in learning the concentration of solutes present in a solution.

Spectrometer: Spectrometeris a chemical instrument used to learn the energy, wavelength, and frequency of a light wave present in an electromagnetic spectrum.

Spectrohelioscope: The type of telescope used to view the sun but only at a particular wavelength of light is spectrohelioscope. It was first designed by George Ellery Hale in 1924 and the name given according to the Greek and Latin words.

Spectroheliokinematograph: If you want to view the activities happening on the surface of the Sun, then spectroheliokinematograph is the instrument used to do your wish. And this device also helps to capture images of the Sun.

Spectroheliography: A scientific device used to capture pictures of Sun activities at its surface but only at particular wavelength is spectroheliography. And this instrument records its data in the form of pictures and graphs.

Spectrograph: The measuring instrument which is helpful in calculating the sound waves or electromagnetic radiation of a spectrum is spectrograph. This instrument works by photographic plate and records the data like telescope.

Spectrofluorimeter: The device which works on the principle of fluorescent properties and technology in order to learn the chemical properties and concentration of fluorescent samples is simply spectrofluorimeter. And this device is specially utilized for analysing fluorescent compounds.

Sonograph: The graphical representation of seismic vibrations and a variety of heavy sound waves analysed by an instrument known as sonograph. This instrument records and displays the data analysed in the form of arbitrary phonetic symbols.

A sonographer is the person who uses this instrument and analyses the ultrasound waves happening inside the human body. In this way, they help doctors to detect and treat many medical conditions.

Solarimeter: Solarimeter, otherwise known as pyranometer that calculates the diffused solar radiation according to the amount of heat absorbed by black bodies.

Snooperscope: The visible instrument that helps in viewing an object or image in the dark using infrared radiation is snooperscope. This works by converting the absorbed infrared radiation into images that are visible to human eye.

Sciascope: An optical instrument that helps in determining the retinal shadows and lights in order to analyse the functioning of eye in regards to refractive images is sciascope.

Sillometer: The instrument that is used to measure the ship travelled number of miles per hour is sillometer.

Sigmoidoscope: Sigmoidoscopeis the medical device that comes with a small tube inserted inside human body in order to inspect the inside part of rectum and sigmoid colon.

Sideroscope: An instrument that is used for identifying the splinter and quantities of steel and iron present in magnetic substances is sideroscope.

Siccimeter: Siccimeter, a measuring equipment used for measuring the degree of evaporation happening while liquids turning into gases.

Shuftiscope: Dysentery is a condition of swollen internal colon due to infection from bacteria, Shigella bacillus. And the instrument which is used medically in order to detect and examine such desentery cases is shuftiscope.

Serimeter: A mechanical device useful for analysing the tensile strength of thread and yarn derived from silk fibres is serimeter.

Sepometer: Sepometer is an apparatus which detects and calculates the septic substance present in the air.

Sensitometer: Sensitometer, used widely in photo studio or multi-media industry in order to calculate the light and film sensitivity of any kind of photographic material.

Selenoscope: An amazing instrument which helps for observing the moon in the sky from earth is nothing but selenoscope. This instrument is widely used in research field since it gives very good view with clear images.

Seismoscope: We often experience or listen about earthquakes around us or all around the world. Such earthquakes are sometimes mild while sometimes huge causing heavy damages to the Earth. But how to measure these earthquakes? Well, seismoscope is one mechanical device used for calculating the degree of earthquake along with its causes.

Seismometer: Here is another equipment useful for measuring the intensity of earthquakes i.e. seismometer.

Seismograph: Seismographs are a part of seismographic network arranged inside the Earth’s ground in order to record the intensity of earthquake in the form of graphical representation.

Scotoscope: Can you see objects in the dark? Obviously No right? But using this scientific instrument one can see and obseve objects present in the dark i.e. nothing but scotoscope.

Scotograph: An aiding appliance which is helpful for writing in the dark or shadow is scotograph. This appliance is widely useful for blind people as their eyes do not have visual capacity.

Scoliometer: The device which helps for measuring the angles and curves is nothing but scoliometer.

Sclerometer: Sclerometer is a measuring equipment helpful for measuring firmness or degree of firmness of a substance.

Scintilloscope: An electronic device, scintilloscope is specially designed for calculating and analysing the amount of high radiation.  

Scintillometer: Scintillometer, an optical instrument used for observing minor fluctuations happening in the air’s refractive index. It works on the changes caused due to fluctuations in the temperature, pressure, and humidity.

Salinometer: Salinometer, otherwise known as salimeter or salinimeter is an electronic machine designed for calculating the salinity of a solution.

Saccharimeter: An optical and medical instrument that tells the amount of sugar present in solutions is saccharimeter. This instrument works on the principle of measuring polarized light.

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Science Words Starts with S – Worksheet

Download this compact glossary of science words that starts with S for your reference.

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