There is potential opportunity to learn science easily by exploring and learning a wide range of science words.
So, today in this post, we will learn science words that start with the letter ‘K.’
Glossary of Science Words Starting with K
Science Words in Chemistry
Kelvin Effect: Kelvin effect, otherwise known as the ‘Thomas Effect,’ determines the variations happening during converting liquids into vapors. This effect works effectively by considering the curved line interface stage between liquid and vapor states. And it is a significant concept for the condensation and process of small droplets into a larger water body.
In physics, the kelvin effect is the phenomenon of captivating heat energy when you pass an electric current through any substance.
K-Electron: K-electron is the electron that occupies the K electron shell of an electrically neutral atom rich in protons. And that electrically neutral atom consists of quantum energy value n=1.
Kalium: Kalium is nothing but the other name for ‘Potassium.’ Yes, people use the term ‘kalium’ for referring to potassium in the German language. And it possesses the symbol ‘K’ in the periodic table. Potassium is silvery-white and soft by appearance and a chemical element that holds atomic number 19. It is highly reactive to the oxygen present in the atmosphere, even exposed for seconds and produces potassium peroxides in flaky substances.
Kelvin Temperature Scale: Kelvin temperature scale is the scale on which zero signifies the complete lack of thermal energy. Yes, scientists designed this type of temperature scale based on the equation, which says the volume of a gas at constant pressure is directly related to the temperature. The letter ‘K’ represents the kelvin temperature scale such as 1120K, 1K, etc. There are no negative values of temperatures on this scale.
K-shell: Every atom of a molecule consists of a nucleus present exactly in the middle of an atom and surrounding by four different types of atomic orbitals. K-shell is the innermost shell of those atomic orbitals with the lowest possible energy to hold electrons around the atomic nucleus.
Keratin: Keratin is nothing but a type of protein that belongs to the family scleroproteins, a class consisting of fibrous structural proteins. It is completely different from other body cells that the human body produces because keratin is meant for protecting the tissues responsible for hair growth and improves skin texture by forming a specialized tissue system.
We can find this protein from the feathers, wool, and horns of vertebrates, urochordates, and amphioxus. And foods like sweet potato, salmon, eggs, mangoes, garlic, etc., are rich in providing keratin. Keratin is highly useful for manufacturing hair cosmetics as it does wonders for human hair.
Ketene: Any chemical compound which consists of R′R″C=C=O functional group, denoted as ketene in organic chemistry. Here R and R’ represent two subjective monovalent element groups. The chemical term ‘Ketene’ is also used for representing the chemical compound ethenone. Ethenone is the simplest ketene that has a molecular formula, H 2C=C=O. Though ketenes are unstable by nature, they are highly useful for acetylating nucleophiles to manufacture amides, esters, and other compounds.
Ketal: Ketals are the products of the reaction between the alcohols and carbonyl compounds undergoing anhydrous conditions. These are also the resultant products derived from ketones, in which two alkoxy groups substitute the carbonyl (C=O) group. Hence, it is otherwise popular as ‘an acetal derived from ketone.’
Ketone: In organic chemistry, the ketone is a chemical compound that consists of a functional group with R2C=O molecular structure, where R= carbon-containing substituents. Forex: Acetone is the best common example of ketone. In the human body, ketones are handy and work as an alternative compound when there is a glucose level shortage in the body. The liver is the source of producing ketones by breaking down fats in the body. The presence of ketones inside the body is not harmful, and in fact, ketosis helps very much during low diet or fasting conditions.
Ketoxime: Ketoximes are the organic chemical compounds with a general structure with the formula RR’C=NOH, where R and R’ are not hydrogen atoms. They belong to imines and form O-substituted oximes.
Ketoheptose: The heptose carbohydrate monosaccharide compound with seven carbon atoms attached to a ketone functional group is ketoheptose. These are available abundantly and naturally in various vegetables and fruits like carrots, figs, avocados, and mangoes.
Ketohexose: Ketohexose is a monosaccharide carbohydrate organic compound consisting of six carbon atoms and a ketone functional group. Forex: Fructose. The specialty of ketohexoses is: it consists of 3 chiral centers, and hence eight stereoisomers are possible (4 pairs of enantiomers).
Ketopentose: Ketopentose is a type of monosaccharide that consists of five carbon atoms attached to only one ketone group at the second position. Forex: deoxyribose in RNA and ribose in DNA.
Ketotetrose: Ketotetrose is a monosaccharide carbohydrate that consists of four carbon atoms and a ketone functional group.
Kilo: Kilo is a decimal unit highly useful in the International System of Units with the symbol ‘K’. In the metric system, it is denoted by multiplying with 1000. The term ‘Kilo’ is a prefix term that represents “times a thousand” or “one thousand of” while mentioning units. Forex: Kilogram or kilometre.
Kilopascal: Pascal is nothing but the unit of pressure which substituted the unit pounds/square inch worldwide. Multiples of thousand Pascals is nothing but kilopascal. 101.3 kPa = 1 atm.
Kilogram: In the International System of Units, the kilogram is the base unit used to measure the weights of hard substances. 1000 grams is equal to the one-kilogram. It is a standard unit widely used in the fields of commerce, science, and engineering worldwide. Kilo is the common term people use in general and common language.
Kinase: Kinase is a significant enzyme in biochemistry that is highly useful for catalyst purposes. Yes, it helps catalyze the phosphorylation process, where the addition of phosphate groups happens to the substrates from high-energy ATP’s. Thereby, it helps in converting inactive proteins into active proteins.
Kinetic: Kinetic is a physics term that denotes something in motion and creates a certain amount of energy inside that particular object.
Kinetic Energy: Kinetic energy is the physical property of a material in motion, thus creating a certain amount of energy based on its motion and mass. Any moving object possesses kinetic energy. Forex: a person running, throwing stones, and charged particles in an electric field, etc. So, anything that is at work exhibits kinetic energy. Kinetic Energy of a Particle = ½mv2.
Kindling Point: Kindling point is the point at which a substance ignites itself without the help of an external source of heat. And mostly, the kindling point represents any substance only at its lowest temperature. This property of substance helps in transferring activation energy required for the process of combustion. The kindling point of paper = 451 °F.
Kinetic Theory: Kinetic theory states the thermodynamic properties of gases based on the statement that gases consist of fast-moving particles. It mainly depends on its three important principles to explain the properties of gases. And those principles include: 1) Gases consists of fast-moving particles in random directions at particular distances 2) the particles of gases undergo elastic collisions 3) transfer of kinetic energy happens between moving particles in the form of heat.
Kinetics: The branch of chemistry which deals with the study of the rate of reaction of a chemical reaction and its reaction to other factors acting upon it, such as pressure, volume, etc., is kinetics.
Kosmotropic: Kosmotropic is the physical property of any substance which can strengthen the hydrogen bonding, intermolecular forces, and van der Waal’s forces of water-water interactions.
Kosmotropic Agents: Kosmotropic agents are the agent compounds that help in increasing polymer and protein stability. Forex: Lithium, Sulfates, Zinc ions, etc.
Klechkowski’s Rule: The rule which states the process of filling atomic orbitals with electrons and determines its electronic configuration is Klechkowski’s rule. Madelung’s rule is the other popular name for Klechkowski’s rule. This rule is always focused on below points:
1) For matching standards such as n + l, energy rises with growing values of n
2) Energy exhibits high energy when there is a rise in n + l
Kryptonite: Kryptonite is a fictional element that often appears in the superman series of storybooks. It is visually attractive with a wide range of colors, which show various fascinating impacts on Superman in fiction. It has nothing to do with any chemical element in the periodic table.
Krypton: Krypton is the name given to the noble gas element with atomic number 36 and symbol ‘Kr.’ Since it is a noble gas element, it has basic characteristics that noble gas elements have, i.e., colorless, tasteless, and odorless. It is available in very few amounts compared to other noble gases in the atmosphere and is combined with other gases to manufacture fluorescent lamps.
Kingdom: In biology and zoology, the kingdom is the taxonomic rank that divides organisms or animals into different groups. It takes the second position from the highest while ranking the classification of organisms.
Knot: In physics, a knot is a measuring unit that helps measure the rate of speed, i.e., one nautical mile per hour. 1 knot is equal to 1.15 miles per hour, equivalent to 1.85-kilometers per hour.
Krebs Cycle: Krebs Cycle is also popular with other names such as Citric acid cycle and Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle. It is a sequence of natural chemical reactions happening in animals during their aerobic respiration process. This cycle works by utilizing the energy released from breaking down glucose and other sugar molecules into carbon dioxide and water. And oxygen is the main active thing that acts as a catalyst to make the above reaction process successful.
Two carbon dioxide molecules, condensed forms of NADH and FADH2, and one GTP/ATP are the three main products of Kreb’s cycle.
Knock Out: Knock Out is a genetically engineering process of removing one or more particular genes from an organism. Knock out process is mainly useful for the research studies by scientists to find out the impact that the missing gene is creating in the organism. Also, it helps to find out a particular gene’s functionality based on its sequence and locus.
Knock Down: The scientific laboratory technique used for experimenting on the process of suppressing a single or more specific gene in an organism is knock-down. Yes, it helps in reducing the gene expression, but it does not do it completely; we can say partial suppression. Forex: RNAi is a knock-down technique under specific conditions.
Klinefelter Syndrome: An abnormal disorder in males that happens due to the presence of additional X-chromosome is Klinefelter Syndrome. It is a kind of sex chromosome disorder, which rarely happens i.e. 1 in 700 males. This type of genetic condition is not likely to diagnose until the baby boy reaches adulthood. And we see the XXY chromosomal sequence in males who are suffering from this genetic condition.
Kinetochore: The specified region of the chromosome where there is access for the attachment of spindle fibers and protein complexes is the centromere. And kinetochore is a mediating agent which connects the spindle microtubules to the chromosomes during meiosis and mitosis. This helps in the further process of chromosomal movement and then appropriate separation during mitosis.
Kinetic molecular theory (KMT): KMT is the theory that determines the explanation of states of matter, especially ‘gases’, regarding the movement and togetherness of particles. It works mainly based on five principles considering ideal gas molecules such as:
1) Consists of insignificant volume
2) Maintains constant movement
3) Possess negligible intermolecular forces
4) Experiences flawless elastic collisions
5) Kinetic energy and absolute temperature shows a direct relationship
In this way, Kinetic Molecular Theory helps in supporting the explanation of Boyle’s and Charle’s Law.
Kinetic Energy: The energy produced by an object when moving from a state of resting position to motion is kinetic energy. So, it helps in performing a work that is at rest and brings it to motion.
Kinase: Kinase is an enzyme present in the cytoplasm of cells and helps in improving the phosphorylation reactions during glycolysis.
Kin Selection: Kin selection is a natural process happening in an animal or organism to profit from its relatives and its survival. Forex: Honey bees have the amazing self-sacrificing behavior, through which it maintains the genetic relationship among its relatives and extended family. Kin autism also comes under kin selection based on altruistic behavior, which leads to evolution.
Kilo Base: Kilobase is a measuring unit that helps in determining the length of DNA fragments. ‘Kb’ is the measuring unit of kilobase. One kb is equal to 1000 nucleotides.
Kidneys: Kidneys are significant bean-shaped organs of the human body and located at the posterior side of the body below the rib cage and on either side of the spine. The size of your fist represents the size of one kidney. The kidneys’ main function is to get out the waste material like drugs, toxins, etc. in the form of urine. And nephrons are the tiny filters present inside kidneys that mainly help eliminate waste from the body.
Ketoacidosis: Hyperglycemia is a medical condition due to which the human body consists of higher levels of glucose levels, i.e., exceeding 250 mg/dL. When a human body experiences hyperglycemia in higher amounts, then it ends up in a new phenomenon, i.e., acute, risky, and a life-threatening situation known as ketoacidosis. Mostly, diabetic patient experiences this medical condition due to lack of enough insulin and excess production of keto acids.
Keratinocyte: The type of cell which helps in the formation and production of keratin is nothing but keratinocyte. These cells protect our skin against UV radiation, heat rays, dehydrated conditions, disease-causing bacteria, parasites, viruses, etc. These cells are available under the dermis layer of skin layers and travel towards the epidermis when they mature and reach the dead stage.
Keratin: Keratin is a type of protein produced from keratinocytes and is present in human hair, skin, horns, feathers, wool, and hoofs. It is present on epithelial cells and helps in serving the structural and protective functions of the human body.
Keq: Keq is an equilibrium constant related to chemical reactions. And it determines the relationship between the quantities of reactants and products at a given temperature and pressure at balance.
Kelvin: Kelvin is the temperature unit in the International and SI standard system of units. It is a significant unit in thermodynamics and physics. The letter ‘K’ represents the value of temperatures in kelvin.
Karyotype: In genetics, the karyotype is a laboratory technique used to detect and determine the shape, size, and quantity of chromosomal numbers in human body cells. It is useful for identifying the abnormalities in chromosomal sequences, missing chromosomes, abnormalities in chromosomal functions, and their location.
Karyotyping is a method that helps to understand the complete genome of an individual by gathering and pairing all the chromosomal sequences of a living organism.
Karyosome: The nucleus of any body cell consists of chromatin material before going through meiotic classification. And such chromatin material is nothing but karyosome. It appears very dense and is mistaken with the nucleolus part inside the nucleus of the cell. The main role of the karyosome is participating in oogenesis and it is popular with another name, i.e. karyosphere.
Karyoplast: The nucleus of the cell surrounded by a layer of plasma membrane and cytoplasm, is the karyoplast. It consists of DNA and a certain amount of cytoplasm.
Karyoplasm: Karyoplasm, otherwise well-known as nucleoplasm and karyolymph, is a fluid material present inside the nucleus of the body cells in all eukaryotic cells. Karyoplasm is specific in carrying nucleoli and chromosomes.
Karyon: Karyon is nothing but a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA, which helps in the reproduction of living organisms and the development of the organism.
Karyomegaly: In genetics, karyomegaly isa medical condition where there is huge inflammation or swelling of the nucleus of cells happens, which causes the enlargement of cells.
Karyolysis: The process of destructing the nucleus of a cell refers to karyolysis. It supports the destruction of chromatin material of a cell resulting in the production of dying cells.
Karyology: Karyology is the branch of science that relates to genetics and deals with the structural importance and functions of the nucleus of the cell. It studies the functions and sequence of chromosomes in regards to their shape, pattern, etc.
Karyokinesis: The phenomenon of classifying the nucleus of cells into its daughter cells during the M-phase of the cell cycle is nothing but karyokinesis.
Karyogamy: Karyogamy is the process of interaction between the nuclei of cells or the chromatin material of cells for supporting the sexual reproduction mechanism of living organisms.
Karyoevolution: Karyoevolution is the evolutionary process in living organisms due to changes in the number, shape, and structural sequences of chromosomes.
Kappa Particle: Kappa particles, also known as kappa organisms, are the transmissible gram-negative cytoplasmic symbionts, i.e., a type of bacterium. These particles present in the cytoplasm of protozoan Paramecium Aurelia.
Kanamycin: Kanamycin is a kind of antibiotic from the aminoglycoside family. It helps in poisoning the translation process of ribosomes using the binding technique.
K selection: K-selection is a natural process of evolution that maintains stable population growth by restricting the birth of off-springs.
K Antigen: K antigens are the dense polysaccharide material of a bacterial capsule and are present on the outer layer of cells.
Katathermometer: The laboratory device useful for measuring the cooling nature of air.
Keratometer: The instrument useful for measuring the curvature of the cornea is nothing but a keratometer.
Katharometer: The device useful for calculating the changes happening during the composition of gases is the katharometer.
Keraunograph: keraunograph is a scientific device useful for detecting thunderstorms that are happening at very distant places.
Kinetoscope: The instrument used to produce curves during the interaction of molecules via circular movements is simply a kinetoscope.
Koniscope: The device used to detect and calculate the dust particles in the atmospheric air is a kinescope. Konimetre is another instrument useful for measuring the quantity of dust present in the air.
Kymograph: The pressure exerted by liquid substances is measured by an instrument known as a kymograph.
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