As it is tough to learn about all the scientific terms, we have classified learning science words into different posts based on the English alphabets.
Let us begin today’s list of science words that start with the letter ‘A.’ Also, you can find various terms, definitions, and examples of ‘A’ letter science word listed here.
Glossary of Science Words Starting on Letter ‘A’
Here are the list of topics we will cover in this article:
Science Words in the Field of Chemistry
Abhesive: Abhesive is a kind of chemical substance that stops adhesive materials from sticking. This term is quite the opposite to adhesive. Ex: Teflon
Adhesive: Adhesive is also a chemical substance that helps a substance to stick to another substance. By texture, adhesive substances appear like glue, sticky, paste, mucilage, and non-metallic. One can find adhesives in different forms such as powders, solid materials, liquids, tapes, sheets, and hot melt glues.
Alpha Carbon: The immediate and adjacent carbon atom linked to the carbonyl functional group in an atom or molecule is alpha carbon. ‘C=O’ represents carbonyl, and the carbon atom in this group refers to ‘carbonyl carbon.’ In contrast, oxygen atom refers to ‘carbonyl oxygen.’ ‘α’ is the standard notation to represent alpha carbon, i.e., α-carbon.
Alpha Hydrogen: In organic chemistry, alpha hydrogen is the hydrogen atom linked to the alpha carbon atom of a chemical compound. ‘α’ is the standard notation to represent alpha hydrogen, i.e., α-hydrogen, which unusually exhibits acidic properties. For Ex: Carbonyl groups of ketones and aldehydes reveal alpha hydrogens.
Ablation: In chemistry, the technical process of removing and moving heat using various techniques like vaporization, melting, and other such erosive processes is ablation. In biology, the surgical procedure of removing specific tissues in the body is ablation. In geology, the process of removing ice and snow from ice glaciers through melting and vaporization methods is also ablation.
Abegg’s Rule: The rule which states that the total addition of positive and negative valence electrons of an atom or chemical element equals eight is Abegg’s Rule. For Ex: Mostly, the fourth and seventh group chemical elements exhibit Abegg’s rule.
Ab Initio: Ab initio, Latin term used to refer to a prediction or calculation from the beginning of a significant experiment period. And its meaning in Latin is ‘From First Principles’ or ‘From the Beginning.’
Abrasive: A mineral substance that helps polish or shape, or finishing a hard surface of a workpiece, simply by rubbing is abrasive. Abrasives are the materials helpful in polishing rough surfaces. And these materials are heat-resistant, brittle, and hard by nature. For Ex: Corundum, Diamond, and Sand Paper.
Absolute Error: Absolute error is the error value that tells the difference between the measured and actual values during an experiment. It simply means the inaccurate values of measurement. And Absolute uncertainty is the other name for absolute error. For Ex: If a substance’s measured value is 2.14 and the real value is 2.00, then the absolute error is 2.14 – 2.00 = 0.14.
Absolute Alcohol: Any liquid substance which contains 99% of alcoholic substance and less than 1% of water by weight is absolute alcohol. Which means the liquid substance is a pure alcoholic substance. For Ex: Ethanol is a simple and organic chemical compound constituting 99% of alcohol and 1% of water and holds the chemical formula C2H2OH. And ethanol is colorless by appearance and exists in all types of alcoholic beverages. Pure alcohol or ethyl alcohol, or grain alcohol are the alternate names for ethanol.
Absolute Temperature: The heat rate in a chemical compound is temperature, and the temperature present at the lowest possible temperature scale in kelvins is the absolute temperature. And the zero points on this temperature scale is absolute zero.
Absolute Pressure: Absolute pressure is the pressure detecting at zero pressure relative to a full vacuum or air-free space. It tells the pressure value according to the gauge and atmospheric pressure.
Absolute Vacuum: Absolute vacuum, otherwise known as perfect vacuum, refers to the specific volume of a space that does not contain any matter.
Absolute Zero: The lowest possible energy at which a thermodynamic system’s temperature consists of matter at 0 K or -273.15°C is absolute zero. The value of absolute zero on the Celsius temperature scale is −273.15 °C and on the Fahrenheit temperature scale is −459.67 °F.
Absorption: The process of taking in all the atoms or ions or molecules by any type of state of matter present in bulk quantities, i.e., either solid or liquid or gas is absorption.
Absorbance: The degree of absorbing a specific wavelength of light by a substance is absorbance. Optical density, Decadic Absorbance, and Extinction are the alternate names for absorbance.
Absorptivity: The mechanism of movement of a liquid’s adsorbent onto a solid, resulting in a monomolecular layer formation is absorptivity. As the adsorbent molecules are loosely present, it is easy for them to move quickly from liquid to solid substance. Absorption cross-section is the alternative name for absorptivity.
a = A/(bc); a is absorptivity, b is path length, A is absorbance, and c is the concentration.
Absorbed Dose: Absorbed dose is the quantity of energy stored or absorbed after the radiation of a material per unit mass. Gray (Gy) or J/kg is the SI unit of absorbed dose.
Absorption Spectroscopy: The spectroscopic or laboratory technique of measuring a sample’s concentration based on the wavelength of a light absorbed by it is absorption spectroscopy. Also, one can determine the structure of a sample through this technique.
Absorption Spectrum: The graphical representation of electromagnetic spectrum in the form of dark lines caused due to the absorption of light at specific wavelengths is absorption spectrum.
While in plant biology, the amount of light absorbed by various pigments like chlorophyll at specific wavelengths is the absorption spectrum. And it directs to the amount of photosynthesis that happened at every light wavelength.
Abstraction: In a chemical reaction, if a radical removes an atom or ion from a molecular entity, then that process refers to abstraction.
For Ex: Abstraction of a Hydrogen atom from acetone by chlorine radical and the chemical reaction is here; CH4 + Cl– → H3C– + HCl
Accelerator: Any chemical substance that alters a chemical reaction to increase its reaction rate is the accelerator. For Ex: Most often, we see accelerators in polymerization. Because accelerators speed up cross-linking bonds of polymer subunits even at lower temperatures, and Dimethyl benzylamine and cement accelerator are other accelerators that speed up the purpose of chemical reactions.
Abundance Ratio: Abundance ratio tells the ratio between the chemical compositions of atoms of one isotope to the other isotope atoms existing in the given sample.
Accuracy: Accuracy means how correctly or closely the measured and absolute values of an investigation are related. Measuring accurate values is very much important while doing a chemical experiment with specific concentrations of reactants.
AC or A/C: AC is the short form of ‘Alternating Current,’ which is an electric current that tends to reverse its direction very often.
Acetal: Acetal, a common functional group with a molecular formula R2C(OR’)2). It is present in an organic compound where two oxygen atoms bonded separately with two single bonds to a single and center carbon atom. But historically, acetals were popular as ‘Ketals.’ Because the earlier definition of acetal says, at least one R group of the compound is derivative of aldehyde.
Acetals which exhibits different R groups in a chemical compound are mixed acetals, and these are commonly referred to 1,1-diethoxyethane compound.
Acetate: In chemistry, we observe multiple definitions to acetate. Let us see them below:
1) The type of fiber compound produced from cellulose acetate is acetate.
2) When you eliminate the hydrogen atom acidic from acetic acid, the ion obtained is acetate.
3) Any compound which contains an acetate ion refers to acetate.
Achiral: Any substance or molecule in chemistry refers to as achiral when it can superimpose itself on its mirror image. The achiral molecules show a plane of symmetry with a stereocenter called meso. And the other name for achiral molecules are amphichiral molecules. Forex: Methane.
Acid-Base Indicator: An indicator, a combination of either a weak acid or base capable of changing the color of an aqueous solution, is an acid-base indicator. Changing the solution’s colors happens by changing the concentrations of hydrogen or hydroxide ions in the same solution. Well, this indicator is otherwise known as a pH indicator.
A few acid-base indicators include Methyl Orange, Red cabbage, Thymol Blue, and Phenol Red.
Acid Anhydride: Acid anhydride means ‘absence of water, which means the chemical compound, i.e., non-metal oxide. These non-metal oxides undergo a chemical reaction and form an acidic solution by eliminating water molecules.
Two oxoacid molecules’ condensation process where two acyl groups linked together with a single oxygen atom produces a product known as acid anhydride.
Acid: Acid is the chemical term that denotes the substances whose pH value is below 7. By nature, acid compounds taste sour, change the color of solutions, react with metals like iron, promote specific chemical reactions, etc. Besides, these molecules are capable of donating hydrogen atoms and accept electrons.
Acid-Base titration: The method of neutralizing specific acid concentrations and bases in a solution with unknown concentrations of acids and bases is acid-base titration. And this method is very much helpful for analyzing a reaction quantitatively. Either visual indicators or pH electrodes or both operate the analysis of acid-base titrations.
Acid Catalysis: A chemical reaction demands an acid molecule to act as a catalyst to speed up its reaction rate, and this acid molecule is the acid catalyst. And the type of reaction is acid catalysis, where acid catalyst supply protons increase the reaction rate chemically.
Acid Promoted: Acid promoted is an acid molecule that encourages the chemical reaction to happen but does not act as a catalyst.
Acid Dissociation Constant: Kadenotes the acid dissociation constant, the equilibrium constant of dissociation reaction of an acid. For Ex: HB(aq) ↔ H+(aq) + B–(aq)
Ka = [H+][B–] / [HB].
Acidic Solution: Any aqueous solution which shows its pH value less than 7 refers to an acidic solution.
Acidulant: Acidulants are chemical compounds but food additives that confer sour and acidic flavor.
Acology: Acology is the branch of science that deals with the study of medical treatments.
Actinic: Actinic is a chemical term that refers to the ultraviolet spectrum emitting from sunlight, capable of speeding up the reaction. The radiant energy from this spectrum of light wavelengths promotes the chemical reaction.
Ex: Actinic keratosis is the skin condition that happens due to constant exposure to UV light rays.
Acrylic Fibre: The synthetic polymer units possess an average molecular weight of 85% acrylonitrile (CH2CHCN) monomers. Ex: vinyl acetate
Actinides: A group of chemical and radioactive elements whose atomic numbers ranging from 89 to 103 refers to actinides (from actinium to lawrencium). For Ex: Thorium, Plutonium, etc.
Actinium: The trivalent radiation-emitting element that matches with the lanthanum element in characteristics and properties is actinium. This element is helpful in radio immunotherapy and produces Bi-213 in a reusable generator.
Activated Carbon: The processed form of carbon that consists of tiny pores to make the superficial carbon area available for adsorption is activated carbon. The alternate name for activated carbon is activated charcoal.
Active Ingredient: The chemical composition of any substance that is useful biologically is the active ingredient. The compounds that exhibit active ingredients include pesticides, drugs, herbal medicines, etc. these are compounds with active ingredients that help the human body treat its medical conditions. Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API), active substance, and pharmakon are the other names for the active ingredient.
Activation Energy: Activation energy helps make an atom or molecule active to undergo specific physical and chemical transformations. It is the most critical concept in physics and chemistry and measures by joules per mole or kilojoules per mole, or kilocalories per mole. Ea denotes activation energy.
Activated Complex: The intermediate state during a chemical reaction while converting a specific amount of reactants into products is activated complex. At the activated complex, we can observe the maximum energy levels of the reaction.
Actual Yield: The actual amount or concentration of products formed from the reaction between the reactants in a chemical reaction is actual yield. Depending on the reaction type, the actual yield may differ from theoretical and measuring yield. It is less or equal to the theoretical yield, and if your value of actual yield does not satisfy this, then somewhere it went wrong. Moles and grams are the measuring units of any type of yield.
Active Transport: The transport of molecules or ions in a mixture of solutions from lower concentration to higher concentration is active.
Activity Series: The activity series, otherwise known as the reactivity series, is the series of metals arranged according to their reactivity nature, ranking from highest to lowest. These series are very much helpful in determining which metals will displace the hydrogen gas in aqueous solutions.
Acute Health Effect: The immediate effect caused due to prolonged exposure to harmful chemicals to the animal body, including humans, is acute health effect. These effects are dangerous but curable when treated immediately or completely stops when there is no further exposure.
Acyl Group: Inorganic and inorganic compounds, the functional group with molecular formula RCO- in a group of atoms attached to the carbon atom with a single bond is an acyl group. The IUPAC name of the acyl group is ‘alkanoyl,’ resulting from the term carboxylic acid.
For Ex: Esters, aldehydes, ketones, and amides contain and offer acyl groups to other compounds.
Acylation: The technique of adding acyl group to a chemical compound through a chemical reaction is called acylation. The reactant which is offering acyl group to another compound is the acylating agent. And the process helps stop the occurrence of rearrangement reactions during the alkylation process.
Acyl Halide: Acyl halide, otherwise known as acid halide, denotes the organic compounds that contain halide functional groups. These functional groups result from oxoacid when it replaces its hydroxyl group with a halogen group of atoms.
Addition Polymer: Addition polymer refers to the polymer formed from the simple polymerization reaction between the monomer molecules, which does not give any other co-products. It is quite the opposite to condensation polymerization reaction, in which there is a formation of co-products. And here, the monomer units are primarily of ethylene derivatives.
Besides, additional compounds are nothing but molecular compounds that consist of more than two simpler compounds linked to form a perfect crystal. And these two simple compounds are denoted by a dot (.).
Ex: Hydrates are the common addition compounds as they crystallize salt from water.
Additional Reaction: An addition reaction is an organic reaction through which smaller atoms and ions combine to form bigger molecules linked by double or triple bonds. If these addition reactions happen during polymerization reactions, then it refers to addition polymerization reactions.
Adenosine Triphosphate: ATP, an abbreviated form of adenosine triphosphate. It is an energy-carrying organic compound with the molecular formula C10H16N5O13P3. When three separate phosphate groups link to an adenosine molecule, it refers to nucleoside triphosphate.
In biology, ATP helps capture chemical energy resulting from the biological metabolism of chemical molecules inside the body while digesting food. And this energy act as fuel to support many metabolisms and cellular processes in living cells.
Aeration: The process of sending the specific amount of Air into any substance is aeration. For Ex: the water inside the aquarium pot gets fresh oxygen through the aeration process as they send Air into it.
Air: Air is the term that denotes the mixture of gases to fill Earth’s atmosphere. Since it is a mixture of gases, many gases such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, etc.; however, historically, the term Air was used to mention a specific type of gas. Well, there is no world without Air.
Adulterant: Adulterants are pollutant molecules or compounds that destroy the quality of a pure substance. These contaminated compounds are helpful for the manufacturer to increase the product quantity. But in real life, adulterants are not suggestible as they compromise safety measures and even reduce the pure product’s effect.
For Ex: Water is an adulterant when added to alcohol. The addition of pebbles, mud, chalk powder, sand, etc., also acts as adulterants in other pure substances.
Alcohol: Any organic molecule consisting of at least one or more than two hydroxyl groups linking to an alkyl group’s carbon atom is alcohol. For Ex: Ethanol and Butyl Alcohol.
Ala: The short name of amino acid alanine is Ala and is otherwise denoted as ‘A.’
Aerosol: The suspension process of solid and liquid particles like fog, smoke, dust, etc., in the Air, is aerosol.
Alchemy: Alchemy is an art skill, i.e., collecting unusable materials and turning them into valuable and beautiful things. In other words, alchemy refers to the ancient tradition of chemistry, which detects reality and laws and functions through the senses.
Aether: Aether, alternatively the term spells as Æther or ether, was an element that took fifth place in alchemical chemistry. In earlier science, scientists of the 18th and 19th century considered it a medium through light waves. Any organic compound consisting of an oxygen atom linking to two alkyl or aryl groups refers to the ‘Ether’ compound.
Alcoholate: Alcoholates are the crystalline form of alkoxide anions, in which crystallized water replaces by alcohol molecules.
Alcoholysis: Alcoholysis is a decay and chemical reaction between alcohol and triglycerides, which eventually inserts alcoholic content into the product. The other name for alcohol is transesterification, as the product of these processes is mostly the ester forms.
This reaction process’s primary chemical formula is Alcohol + R-LG → R-Alcohol + LG, where LG= Leaving Group.
Alcohol Dehydrogenase: The enzyme that promotes the oxidation reaction of alcohol in NADH’s presence resulting in aldehyde or ketones is alcohol dehydrogenase. Also, this enzyme helps to reverse this reaction and produce alcohols back from aldehydes and ketones.
Aldehyde: Any organic compound which consists of a -CHO functional group in a hydrocarbon chain is an aldehyde. The carbon atom links to an oxygen atom with a double bond, the hydrogen atom with a single bond, and other atoms with a single bond.
Aldotetrose: The type of monosaccharide which contains four carbon atoms and aldehyde group placed at first carbon and ketone group at second group is aldotetrose.
Aldoxime: The organic compounds which consist of the RR’C=NOH functional group and belong to the imines group is aldoxime. In which at least one R group is hydrogen.
Aldohexose: The carbohydrate compound consists of hexose sugar with six carbon atoms, in which the aldehyde functional group is at first carbon is aldohexose.
Aldoheptose: The heptose biological compound consists of seven carbon atoms, among which the first carbon bonded with the aldehyde group is aldoheptose.
Aldopentose: The pentose sugar compound with five carbon atoms where the first carbon attached to the aldehyde functional group is aldopentose.
Aldose: The monosaccharide compound with a carbon chain as its backbone and attached to an aldehyde chain is an aldose. The standard molecular formula of aldose is Cn(H2O)n.
Algaecides: The chemical biocide substance helpful in killing the growth and spread of algae are Algaecides. The alternate name is algicide for this medicinal compound. For Ex: In ornamental pools and aquariums, copper sulphate works as Algaecide to kill algae growth.
Aliphatic Amino Acid: The non-polar and water-hating amino acids encompassed of the aliphatic side chain functional group are aliphatic amino acids. For Ex: Proline, Leucine, Valine, Alanine, etc. Methionine also comes under this category, but it is an exceptional case.
Aliphatic Compounds: The organic compounds which form non-aromatic molecule structures, atoms linked by single or double or triple bonds, are aliphatic compounds.
For Ex: Cyclo-alkanes (saturated hydrocarbons), cyclo-alkenes, and -alkynes (unsaturated hydrocarbons) are a few aliphatic compounds.
Aliphatic Group: The group of hydrocarbon compounds that contains a functional group with carbon and hydrogen atoms linked in straight chains is the aliphatic group. And this group of compounds includes non-aromatic rings and open-chain structures irrespective of the type of bonds.
Alkaline: An aqueous solution refers to alkaline when it exhibits the pH value of more than 7. These solutions are also denoted as basic solutions or basic compounds and are completely soluble in water. For Ex: Potassium and Sodium Oxide.
Alkali Metal: All the metal elements in group 1 of the periodic table in chemistry are alkali metals. These metals are highly reactive as they donate valence electrons and tend to form ionic bonds with non-metals. A few alkali metals include Potassium, Sodium, Lithium, Francium, Rubidium, and Cesium.
Alkaline Earth Metals: The six elements belonging to the second group of the periodic table refers to alkaline earth metals. These elements are good at conducting electricity, basic, and metallic by nature. For Ex: Strontium, Calcium, Magnesium, Berylium, Barium, and Radium.
Alkalinity: The degree of the capacity of an aqueous solution to neutralize an acidic or basic solution and maintains neutral pH is alkalinity. Maintaining alkalinity is very much crucial for aquatic life. Alkalinity is otherwise popular with the name buffering capacity.
Alkane: Alkanes are the chemical compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen atoms linked together by single bonds. These are saturated and are less reactive to other compounds by nature. Inorganic chemistry, alkanes refer to paraffin molecules.
Alkenes: The carbon and hydrogen atoms chain linked together by double bonds of carbon-carbon atoms is an alkene. For Ex: H2C=CH2, molecular formula of ethane or ethylene.
Alkynes: The unsaturated organic compounds which consist of a series of carbon and hydrogen atoms with carbon-carbon triple bonded functional group are alkynes. CnH2n-2 is the empirical formula of alkynes. For Ex: Ethyne, Propyne, 1-Butyne, etc.
Alkaloids: In chemistry, the natural chemical compounds that mainly consist of at least one nitrogen atom in a heterocyclic ring are alkaloids. Biologically, alkaloids are present in a bulk number inside the animal bodies, including humans and plants, fungi, and bacteria. However, a few of the alkaloids in plants are toxic for those who consume them. For Ex: Nicotine, Cinchona, Cocaine, Morphine, etc.
Alkanoylation: The chemical process of adding an acyl group to a molecule through a chemical reaction is Alkanoylation. And otherwise, it refers to acylation.
Alkenyl Group: The removal process of a hydrogen atom from the carbon-carbon double bond of an alkene molecule results in an alkenyl group’s formation.
For Ex: H2C=CH- known as the Vinyl group formed from the parent compound, ethane H2C=CH2.
Alkoxide: The conjugate base and organic compound formed when a hydroxyl group removed from alcohol compound while reacting with metal is alkoxide. And these alkoxides are good nucleophiles, strong bases, and suitable ligands by nature. Ex: Sodium Methoxide formed when sodium reacts with methanol.
Alkyl-Ammonium Salt: Any organic compound class referring to ammonium salt with a cation, which holds the molecular formula NRxH4-x where x = 1-4 is alkyl ammonium salt. For Ex: dimethyl ammonium chloride, or else known as Dimethylamine hydrochloride.
Alkoxy Group: The organic functional compound consists of at least an alkyl group linked to an oxygen atom with a single bond is an alkoxy group. When an alkoxy group is linked to a hydrogen atom, then it refers to alcohol. And the alternate name for the alkoxy group is the alkoxy group.
Ex: The standard example for alkoxy group is methoxy group, whose molecular formula is CH3O-.
Alkylation: The chemical process of introducing or adding at least one alkyl group from one molecule to another substrate refers to alkylation. The positive part of this process is that the alkyl group can transfer in many forms like carbanion, carbo cation, a free radical, and a carbene.
Alkylate: Alkylate is the product compound resulting from the chemical reaction between alkane and alkene compounds. Or The chemical compound formed from the chemical process of adding alkyl groups to another compound is alkylate.
Alkyl Group: Alkyl group is a functional organic compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms linked in a straight chain. For Ex: methyl CH3, butyl C2H5, etc. The basic formula of alkyl group compounds is CnH2n+1.
Allotrope: The characteristic of an element capable of existing in a different form regarding its structure and same physical state are allotropes. And the property of an element to stay in various forms is allotropism. When an element undergoes allotropism, it forms different structural forms by linking its atoms differently.
Alloy: The product formed when more than two elements, including metals as one reactant, refers to an alloy. A few of the materials considered as alloys include pewter, brass, phosphor bronze, steel, amalgam, etc.
Alpha Decay: The radioactive disintegration of an atomic nucleus into another form of atomic nucleus leading to an alpha particle’s emission refers to alpha decay. And in this process, the different nucleus reduces its atomic number by two and mass number by four. Alpha decay, generally expressed with a symbol ‘α,’ i.e., α-decay. The primary reaction of alpha decay is;
ZXA → Z-4YA-2 + 4He2 For Ex: 238U92 changes to 234Th90 through alpha decay
Alpha Particle: The positively charged particles similar to He2+ ion or the helium nucleus and are the radioactive decay products are alpha particles. And the Greek letter ‘α’ replaces the alpha in this term in general use.
Alpha Hydrogen: Alpha hydrogen in general use refers to the letter ‘α,’ i.e., ‘α-hydrogen.’ This is nothing but the hydrogen atom present on alpha-carbon present in a chemical compound.
Alpha Radiation: The radiation emitting from the radioactive decay of a nucleus in an atom, making it unstable, is alpha radiation. Hence, this radiation refers to ionizing radiation, resulting in the emission of alpha particles in radiation.
Alternating Copolymer: The kind of polymer chain unit which consists of monomer units placed alternatively in the chain acts as an alternating copolymer. The other two main types of copolymers include block and random copolymers.
Amide: The type of function group in which the nitrogen atom linked to a carbonyl group like N-C=O is an amide molecule. When this amide group carbonyl is linked to both hydrogen and amino groups, it is the formamide group.
Amalgam: The combination of mercury and other metals forms an alloy known as amalgam, and the process of forming these alloys is amalgamation. Amalgams are highly in demand in dentistry as it is inexpensive and becomes hard once mixed up. Typically, dental amalgams use silver and mercury, and rarely silver replaces by copper, zinc, indium, etc. Also, amalgams made of Gold and mercury are useful for gold extractions.
Aluminum: The chemical element with atomic number 13 holding the symbol ‘Al’ and stays silvery-white in color is aluminum. By nature, it is an excellent electric conductor which resists weathering and also available in the Earth’s crust in bulk quantity.
Amidogen: The amino radical with two hydrogen atoms and one nitrogen atom derived from ammonia is amidogen.
Amine Functional Group: The nitrogen atom consists of a lone pair of electrons and occupied by three substituent molecules around it, making it an amine functional group. Further, these amines are divided into three types such as primary, secondary, and tertiary amines. These amine types classifications happen based on the number of hydrogen atoms replaced by substituents.
Amine: The weak base chemical compound or functional group with more than two hydrogen atoms and one nitrogen atom holding a lone pair of electrons is an amine. They come in use generally with the prefix amino- and the suffix –amine.
Amino Acid: In biochemistry, the amino acid is the fundamental and tiny unit of proteins in the human body. Any organic compound which consists of one amino and a carboxylic acid group linked to alpha carbon refers to the amino acid. In the human body, these amino acids are essential for synthesizing hormones and neurotransmitters plus energy.
For Ex: Histidine, Methionine, phenylalanine, lysine, Valine, etc., are essential amino acids. Whereas serine, alanine, glutamic acid, asparagine, and aspartic acid.
Aminolysis: The chemical reaction through which an amine group (one of the reactants) is introduced into the product molecule by substitution method is aminolysis. For Ex: Acetyl chloride, when it reacts with ammonia, results in the formation of primary amide, acetamide as a product.
Ammonium salt: The neutralization process of reaction between an acid and ammonium hydroxide results in a salt consisting of NH4+ ion. And this type of salt with NH4+ ion is ammonium salt. The general formula of ammonium salts are (R)4N+A–.
Ammeter: Ammeter is an electrical instrument helpful for measuring electricity.
Ampere: The international SI unit of electric current is ampere denoted with a symbol ‘A.’ The amount of current used for managing 2 x 10-7 newtons of force per meter between two long parallel electric wires tells by ampere.
Ammonium: The conjugate acid containing the univalent ion, NH4+ of ammonia, and matches with alkali metals and salts’ basic properties is ammonium.
Amorphography: The branch of biochemistry that deals with studying specific characteristics and properties of various amorphous solids is Amorphography.
Amorphous: The type of solid materials mostly of the non-crystalline form contains its atoms, and molecules not organized in definite order are amorphous solids. For Ex: Glass, Gel, and plastic.
Amphetamine: Amphetamine, a psycho-stimulant medication in liquid form with chemical composition C9H13N, belongs to the molecules’ phenethylamine class.
Amphoteric: The substance which acts as both acid and base while reacting with other compounds is an amphoteric compound. Amphoterism is the property of a substance that acts as acid while reacting with base and base while reacting with acid. Water is the best example of an amphoteric substance.
Amphiprotic: The compounds whose molecules or ions are capable of offering and accepting protons are amphiprotic compounds. Ex: Water. Yes, water acts as a proton acceptor when an acid molecule donates a proton.
Amphoteric Oxide: The metal oxides whose ions react with other molecules both as acid and base refer as amphoteric oxide. Ex: Aluminium and zinc oxides.
Amu: The complete form of ‘amu’ is the Atomic Mass Unit, a measuring unit widely used in chemistry and physics to express molecular and atomic masses. Unified atomic mass unit (u), or universal mass unit, or Dalton (Da) are the other alternate names to ‘amu.’
Amplitude: The value of a wave displaced from zero to various directions to the maximum extent is amplitude. Or the magnitudinal change in the oscillating system of a wave refers to amplitude. Well, peak and semi altitudes are the amplitude types that tell the value of changes in magnitude.
Analyte: In a chemical laboratory, the purest chemical compounds are termed analytes. Or any chemical substances whose chemical composition can find and analyze refers to analytes.
Angstrom: Angstrom, a measuring unit of smaller distances denoted with a symbol Å. Also, it tells the value of light wavelengths such as gamma rays, ultraviolet rays, and other light rays.
1 Å = 10-10 meters
Analytical Chemistry: Analytical chemistry is the branch of science which deals with a variety of matters and its properties in regards to structure, chemical composition, identification, etc. And in this process, this branch uses various instruments and science concepts to quantify a matter. Hence, it is a significant branch of science that tells about the matter and its composition.
Anaerobic: The environment surviving in the absence of ‘oxygen’ is anaerobic. The exercises that help improve bodily functions without oxygen by breaking down the glucose stored are anaerobic. It is an essential biochemical process in the human body and the field of chemistry as well.
Angular Momentum Quantum Number: The specific angular momentum value of an electron in either an atom or molecule denotes the angular momentum quantum number. The symbol ‘ℓ’ refers to the angular momentum quantum number, which also helps to learn the shape of an atom’s electron. Azimuthal quantum number and second quantum number are other alternate names for angular momentum quantum numbers. For Ex: The angular momentum quantum number of the p-orbital is equal to 1.
Anion: An ion is an atom or molecule which possesses electrons more than protons in number, and eventually making it negatively charged is an anion. Atoms that have lesser electron affinity and weak bonds tend to give away electrons making the other atom negatively charged.
For Ex: A cathode in the electrolysis process works as a good anion in the receiving electrons and hence possesses a negative charge.
Anhydrous: Any chemical compound refers as anhydrous when it does not contain a single drop of water content. These anhydrous substances stay crystalline and used for many purposes, same as chemical fertilizers. Such as controlling mold growth in the farms and the residential buildings. However, continuous exposure to anhydrous substances may cause severe damage to your body like choking, coughing, irritation in the eyes, nose, and throat.
Androgen: Any biochemical compound that works as a hormone and helps stimulate or control the male sex traits is an androgen. Besides, androgens work as precursors to female sex hormones and are mostly termed steroid hormones that mostly stay in groups. Ex: di-hydroxy-testosterone and testosterone.
Anisotropy: The property of a substance that displays different physical properties based on the directions in a crystallographic manner is anisotropy. Ex: Wood Piece
Anode: Anodes are electrically charged electrodes that attract anions, eliminate electrons from them, and possess a positive charge. It helps in performing oxidation reactions occurring in an electronic device electrochemically.
Annealing: The process of heating a substance to attain good ductility property by reducing its hardness is annealing. Annealing helps alter the physical and chemical properties of a substance by heating.
Ex: In manufacturing steels, annealing helps in reducing hardness, increasing ductility, and eliminating any potential stresses.
Anodize: Anodizing is an electrochemical method of altering various metals’ surfaces to make them corrosion-resistant, more durable, etc. This process helps in various purposes like reducing corrosion, resists scratching, improves aesthetic qualities, durability, etc. Ex: Aluminium through anodizing remains heat resistant and chemically stable.
Anti-aromaticity: Any chemical compounds which possess conjugated pi-electrons in its conjugated planar system are anti-aromatic compounds. Similarly, the anti-aromatic compound’s property of holding high-energy pi-electrons in the presence of 4n delocalized electrons is anti-aromaticity. The compounds which exhibit anti-aromaticity are highly unstable and thus highly reactive in nature.
Anti-Addition: The addition of two ligands to the multiple bonded carbon atom like in alkenes and alkynes through opposite faces of multiple bonds is anti-addition. The anti-addition process results in increasing the number of ligands and decreasing the order of the multiple bonds. And It also helps in the formation of new double bonds such as Ei elimination.
Anti-Bonding Orbital: The type of molecular orbital present in the region outside the two distinct nuclei of an atom is anti-bonding orbital.
Antichlor: A chemical compound capable of decomposing additional amounts of hypo-chloride from a material that undergoes chlorine-based bleaching refers to antichlor. Such substances help prevent ongoing reactions from happening during the bleaching process.
Ex: Sodium Bisulphite, trisulphites, and Sodium Thio-Sulphate are mainly useful in the textiles, cloth, and paper industry.
Anti-Markovnikov Addition: A type of addition reaction invented by Russian chemist Vladimir Markovnikov in 1870. It says about the outcome of different reactions between the HX hydrogen atom of either an alkene or alkyne and the electrophile.
Anti-Ferromagnetism: Naturally, certain atoms exhibit magnetic properties when they aligned in the right pattern, i.e., parallel while spinning the electrons with neighboring atoms. When there is irregular alignment, i.e., antiparallel movement of electrons concerning the neighboring atoms, that particular atom holds no magnetic properties. And such property of substances refers to anti-ferromagnetism.
Antimony: Antimony is the chemical metalloid element that appears silvery-white in color and holds the atomic number 51 and symbol ‘Sb.’ Since it occurs naturally in the Earth’s environment, it is used since ancient times to manufacture the best medicines and cosmetics. Kohl is the alternate Arabic name of antimony which is also popular in general usage.
Anti-Periplanar: The geometry of a chemical bond angle in A-B-C-D, whose dihedral angle between two pairs of atoms, i.e., between A-B and C-D, remains ±150° and 180°. And this alignment of bond angles in a molecule refers to the anti-periplanar conformation. Hence, anti-periplanar alignment bond angles are very important to tell the geometry of a chemical bond in a molecule.
Anti-oxidant: Oxidation is the chemical process of releasing electrons in which one of the reactants is oxygen. Anti-oxidants are the chemical compounds that inhibit the oxidation process in living organisms from protecting them from further damage. Vitamin C, Vitamin E, lycopene, carotenoids, beta-carotene, and Selenium are the best anti-oxidants in biochemistry.
Aqueous: The solution mixture which involves the presence of water is aqueous. This term is also useful in naming the solutions whose major quantity is water, which acts as a solvent in that solution. Similarly, an aqueous solution is nothing but the solution mixture in which water acts as a solvent. For Ex: Saltwater, Cola, Rain, etc.
Aprotic Solvent: The solvent molecules which are not ready to donate or lose protons, especially the hydrogen atoms, refer to aprotic solvents. And mostly, these solvents do not consist of acidic or basic groups such as acetone, cyclohexane, and other aliphatic compounds.
Aqua Fortis: Aqua fortis is the Latin and historical name for nitric acid (HNO3), a strong oxidizing agent. In Latin, aqua fortis means’ Strong or Fortified Water’ because it reacts with almost all metals like dissolving silver. And is popular as the spirit of niter, and by nature, it is a mineral acid with a highly corrosive nature.
Aqua Vitae: The historical name for concentrated or strong alcohol content present in water or other strong spirits is aqua vitae or aqua vita. The usage of this term is also applicable to the weaker ethanol content with no rectification. For Ex: The strong alcoholic liquor, Brandy.
Aqua Regia: The combination of concentrated hydrochloric and nitric acids making a mixture solution in the ratio 3:1 refers to aqua regia in chemistry. Well, it appears yellowish-orange in color and highly corrosive cum fuming liquid solution by nature. Alchemists state that aqua regia can dissolve highly resistant substances like Gold and platinum.
Arene: An arene is an aryl or aromatic hydrocarbon consisting of alternative double and single bonds and delocalized pi electrons all around the carbon atoms. Benzene is the best example of arenes that form cyclic rings.
Argentum: Argentum is a white, lustrous chemical element with atomic number 47 and the symbol ‘Ag.’ Plus, this is the alternate and popular name for silver in Latin. However, this transition element conducts high electrical and thermal power systems.
Arrhenius Acid: An Arrhenius acid is a chemical compound that increases the number of H+ ions in aqueous solutions when added and dissolved. The following is the best example to explain the nature of Arrhenius acids.
Acid + H2O → H3O+ + conjugate base
Arg: Arg is the abbreviated form of alpha-amino acid arginine, also known as I-Arginine. This amino acid differs from other amino acids by consisting of an α-carboxylic acid group, α-amino group, and a side chain consisting of a 3-carbon aliphatic straight chain.
Argon: Argon is the natural chemical element in Earth’s crust and holds 3rd place in the periodic table of table 8. It is gaseous by nature and also reveals as liquid form occasionally. Plus, it does shows the solubility level equal to oxygen and is colorless and odorless. It holds the symbol Ar.
Aromatic Compound: Aromatic compounds are chemical compounds that consist of sigma and delocalized pi electrons in between the carbon atoms that form cyclic rings. The chemical compounds which contain at least one benzene ring also refer to aromatic compounds. The other names for aromatic compounds are arenes or aromatics.
On the other hand, the specific bonding arrangements that help in holding the pi electrons strongly denote the compound’s aromaticity.
Arrhenius Base: The organic chemical compounds that help increase OH– ions in aqueous solutions denote the Arrhenius base. It happens because Arrhenius bases do not dissolve in water instead dissociates.
Arrhenius Rate Equation: In physics, the Arrhenius equation is the chemical equation that determines the reaction rates depending on the temperature changes. While in chemistry, this equation controls the rate of chemical reactions and calculates the activation energy.
Aryl Group: An aryl group is the functional group or monovalent organic fragment of aromatic compounds, revealing one hydrogen atom’s loss.
Arsenic: Arsenic is a naturally occurring chemical and metalloid element that holds the atomic number 33 and symbol ‘As.’ Generally, one can find arsenic naturally in Air, food, soil, and water. And it is useful in preserving wood, bronzing, manufacturing special types of glasses, as a doping agent in semi-conductors, etc.
Aryl Halide: The aromatic compounds that consist of a halogen atom attached to the cyclic ring’s carbon atom are aryl halides. For Ex: fluoro-benzene, Chlorobenzene, 2, 4-dichloromethylbenzene, and bromo-benzene.
Asn: Asn is the abbreviated form of amino acid, asparagine, which helps manufacture various proteins. N is another abbreviation form of asparagine.
Asbestos: Asbestos is the common name for the naturally happening silicate fibrous materials. And these materials are popular for being highly resistant to heat, electricity, and chemical inertness. But it has some drawbacks as it causes lung disorders when entered into the human body. So, the usage of this compound has become very less since then.
Asphalt: An asphalt is a petroleum form of highly viscous, sticky, and semi-solid material by nature. Bitumen is the other popular name for asphalt and found naturally or as a refined product. And it is a combination of hydrogen, carbon, sulphur, oxygen, and nitrogen. Sometimes, the mixture of gravel, sand, and crushed stone is also known as asphalt mixture.
Asp: The abbreviated form of aspartic acid amino acid is Asp. Also, it is otherwise referred to as D in the fields of biology and chemistry. Aspartic acid consists of a carboxylic acid and an amino group that supports the nervous system’s health and hormone production.
Asphyxiant: The gaseous matter that causes a person to go unconscious by diluting or depriving the oxygen in the body parts’ tissues denotes asphyxiant. Asphyxiants like cyanide and carbon monoxide cause the bloodstream to stop the cells’ supply of oxygen in chemistry. Which eventually results in preventing cellular respiration and causes the patient to develop hypoxemia.
Astro-Chemistry: Astro-Chemistry is the branch of social science and chemistry, which deals with the study of chemical reactions happening between the molecules in the UniverseUniverse. This study also helps in understanding the natural biochemical reactions with the radiations emitting in outer space. As it relates to the study involved beyond the solar system, it is otherwise denoted as Cosmo-Chemistry.
Astatine: The heaviest halogen and radioactive element with atomic number 85 and holds the symbol ‘At’ is astatine. It is available naturally on Earth’s crust and exhibits similar chemical properties to that of Iodine. Since it is highly unstable, one cannot see it with the naked eye.
Atactic: The polymer chain exhibits the random stereochemical arrangement of carbon atoms whose side groups are placed on the polymer backbone refer to atactic.
Atom: Atom is the tiniest piece and describing the structure of an element or matter. These tiny units are resistant to chemical processes and hold the electrically charged particles strongly. Generally, an atom is made up of a nucleus around which we see a specific number of protons, neutrons, and electrons. For Ex: Zinc, hydrogen, Cesium, etc., are atoms.
Atmosphere: Atmosphere is nothing but the region occupied in the space around the planetary bodies. It consists of various gases like oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, etc., along with other minute dust particles like fog, water vapor, and smoke. Astronomers proved that Earth’s atmosphere comprises 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0/9% argon, etc. However, to keep all these constituents of Earth’s atmosphere in place, gravity plays a major role in space.
Atomic Ion: Atomic ion is the ion in an atom or molecule that exhibits a different number of protons and electrons and possesses some electric charge. These electric charges may be either negative or positive, depending on the loss or gain of electrons. For Ex: H–, hydride ion.
Atomic Weight: The total weight of an atom existing in an element measured on an average denote its atomic weight, otherwise known as atomic mass. Chemists measure the average weight of an atom by calculating the number of naturally occurring isotopes in it.
Ex: The atomic weight of carbon is 12.0107 u.
Atomic Number: Almost every atom of an element consists of a nucleus and also a specific number of protons, neutrons, and electrons around it. The atomic number is the proton number as it tells the number of protons around the nucleus of an atom present in a chemical element. And it typically represents a chemical element in the periodic table of chemistry. For Ex: The atomic number of carbon in the periodic table is 6 in the periodic table. And the letter Capital Z represents the atomic number of an element.
Atomic Mass Unit: Atomic mass unit, abbreviated as ‘amu,’ is the unit that measures the molecular and atomic masses of an atom or element. Ex: An atom of helium-4 reveals the mass of 4.0026 amu.
The other atomic mass unit names include Dalton (Da), unified atomic mass unit (u), or universal mass unit.
Atomic Solid: Atoms of one element bonded strongly to the atoms of the same element and represents a solid form known as atomic solid. Atomic solids in which there are covalent bonds to combine atoms of the elements refer to network solids. Atomic solids are poor conductors of electricity and contain high melting points. For Ex: Diamond, Graphite, etc.
Atomic Radius: The half of the distance between the nuclei of two identical atoms to describe an atom’s size is an atomic radius. Since there is no definite value to it, it refers to many types of radius such as covalent radius, ionic radius, van der Waals radius, metallic radius, etc. However, chemists decide the atomic radius of a chemical element by considering the specific atom’s state and properties.
Azimuthal Quantum Number: Azimuthal quantum number, otherwise known as orbital angular momentum quantum number or orbital quantum number or second quantum number. The letter ℓ represents the value of an azimuthal quantum number. Refer angular momentum quantum number definition mentioned above.
Atomic Volume: The specific volume of one mole of atoms present in a chemical element at room temperature refers to atomic volume. The measuring units of atomic volume are cc/mol, i.e., cubic centimeter per mole. The general formula of atomic volume which helps in calculating the atomic value of an element is;
Atomic Volume = atomic weight/density
ATP: The full form of ATP is Adenosine Tri Phosphate, which helps carry the energy of the cells present in all living organisms. The major function of ATP is to absorb the chemical energy releasing from the breaking down of food materials in the body and supply it for other metabolic functions. C10H16N5O13P3 is the molecular formula of ATP.
Aufbau Principle: Aufbau principle helps determine the electronic configurations of atoms or atomic ions of a chemical element. But it follows some rules on how electrons fill the atomic orbitals. Here are those rules:
1) Based on the Pauli Exclusion Principle, one atomic orbital can fit at most 2 electrons.
2) Electrons occupy the lowest potential energy-containing subshells.
3) In the case of 2-3 atomic orbitals which exhibit the same energy levels, electrons follow Hund’s rule to occupy such orbitals. Hund’s rule states that electrons pair up only after spreading up.
Atto: The decimal prefix word widely used in the metric system to represent the 10−18 or 0.000000000000000001 factors. The symbol which denotes atto is ‘a’.
Aurum: Aurum is the Latin name for the most expensive chemical element, Gold, with the atomic number 79. It is the naturally occurring chemical element that holds the highest atomic number and less reactive with other elements. This transition element belongs to group 11 of the periodic table and remains solid by nature under standard conditions. And it holds the symbol ‘Au.’
Auto-Ionization: The method through which ionization reaction happens to the excited electron and releases outer shell electrons, thus enters the lowest energy state is auto-ionization. And this is the process that occurs only between two identical molecules.
Austenite: Austenite is a structure-defining term useful for representing non-magnetic and metallic alloys of steel and iron that exhibit face-centered cubic structures.
Avogadro’s number: Avogadro’s number represents the number of elements present in the substance per unit mole. It is equal to 12 grams of carbon-12, and the approximate value is 6.022 x 1023 particles per mole through an experiment.
Avogadro’s Law: An experimental gas law that states that similar amounts of different gases in a substance consist of similar amounts of molecules under standard conditions. Mathematically, Avogadro’s law formula is; Vn=k,
V = volume of the gas, n = number of moles of the gas, k = Proportionality Constant.
Azide: Any chemical compound which consists of functional group N – 3, a linear anion combined with elements or radicals like NCO−, NO +, N2O. The general formula of azide is RN3.
Azeotrope: Azeotrope, otherwise known as azeotropic mixture or azeotropy, refers to a mixture of two or more liquids showing the same concentrations either in a liquid or gaseous state. The best examples of azeotropes include 95.63% ethanol and 4.37% water, whose boiling point is 78.2 °C.
Azo Compound: The organic and chemical compounds which consist of the diazenyl functional group with the molecular formula, R−N=N−R′, are azo compounds. Here, the R groups can be either alkyl or aryl groups.
Similarly, azo groups are the group of chemical compounds which consist of a diazenyl functional group with the general formula R−N=N−R′.
Glossary of Science Instruments
Absorptiometer: Absorptiometer is the mechanical device useful for measuring the absorption rate of gases in liquids.
Absorptiometry: Absorptiometry is the process of measuring the quantity of radiation absorbed by the living tissues and determines the density.
Accelerometer: An instrument that works on the electronic sensor to measure a moving object’s accelerating forces. This device helps in describing the moving object’s location and controls its movement in space.
Acetimeter: The chemical device used for measuring the amount of acetic acid present in the vinegar solution is acetimeter.
Acidimeter: Acidimeter is a chemical apparatus useful for calculating the strength of acids present in the mixture of solutions.
Actinography: The measuring device helps determine the amount of light or solar radiation required for exposing a photographic film.
Actinometer: Actinometer is an instrument helpful for determining the amount of incident light radiation, which includes ultraviolet radiation. In chemistry, it is useful for determining the rate of reaction happening through solar radiations.
Aerometer: Aerometer is a special device that determines the density of all the different varieties of gases in the Air.
Aethrioscope: Aethrioscope, a meteorological device, works on a special type of thermometer that tells the temperature changes due to the sky’s variations.
Alcoholometer: Alcoholometer is a specially designed instrument that tells the percentage of alcohol amount present in the solutions.
Alcovinometer: An instrument that measures the strength of wine is Alcovinometer.
Algometer: Algometer is a medical device that determines the skin’s sensitiveness to pain caused by pressure or force.
Alkalimeter: The chemical apparatus useful for calculating the alkalines is an alkalimeter.
Altimeter: An altimeter is a radar device that helps measure the distance of a point above sea level, i.e., altitude. Ex: A barometric device fitted in aircraft.
Ammeter: Ammeter is a device widely useful in electrical chemistry to measure the number of electric currents passing in a circuit. And this instrument measures current in amperes.
Anemometer: Anemometer is an instrument for calculating and recording the continuous traces of wind velocity changes. And this device calculates the direction and velocity of wind through a graph called an anemograph.
Aerometer: The apparatus which helps quantify the specific gravity of liquids and solids refers to an aerometer.
Arthroscope: The arthroscope is a medical instrument that helps examine the interior joints and diagnose various medical conditions of the human body.
Atmometer: A scientific apparatus used for evaluating the evaporating capacity of a wet surface into the Air is an atmometer.
Audiometer: Audiometry is a medical machine helpful for calculating the sharpness of hearing senses in humans.
Auriscope: Aurioscope is a medical examination that helps in exploring the internal condition of the ear.
Auxanometer: Auxanometer, a scientific apparatus used for measuring the rate of growth of plants.
Auxometer: The mechanical device that determines the magnifying power.
Audiology: The branch of science which deals with the study of hearing-related disorders is audiology. And the persons who treat such hearing disorders and restores the loss of hearing and related damages refer to audiologists.
Glossary of Science Words in the Field of Biology, Zoology, and Astronomy
Astronomy: Astronomy is the branch of natural science that studies the whole things in space and further than the Earth’s atmosphere. Here, the term ‘whole thing’ used in the definition means what the human eye can see and cannot see. Humans can see through their naked eye include celestial bodies like the sun, planets, moon, stars, etc. And the things which are only possible to see through a telescope include galaxies, asteroids, etc.
Astronauts: Astronaut is a well-trained and fitted-out trainee, travels through the outer space of Earth’s atmosphere by a human-designed spaceflight. An astronaut’s main roles are to serve as a crew member, command pilot officers if necessary, and in charge of piloting and aircraft.
Astrophysics: The study of astronomical objects and their activities in the Universe through the knowledge of space science, physics, and chemistry refers to astrophysics. And the person who researches and analyses astronomy physics by applying some astrological theories refers to astrophysicists.
Abiosis: Abiosis is the state of being in a condition where there is no possibility of life. While considering the ecosystem, abiotic factors refer to the non-living physical and chemical elements. And the non-living resources acquired from the atmosphere to support life on Earth are biotic factors. Forex: water, sunlight, soil, Air, etc.
Abrade: The action of wearing away or rub off something by irritation caused due to force or pressure is abrade.
Acceleration: The vector quantity that describes the moving object’s velocity change rate is nothing but acceleration. One can calculate the acceleration by tracking the speed of the object revolving at uncertain velocities.
a = Δv/Δt
Accumulation: The state of being collecting things constantly is accumulation. For Ex: The continuous insertion of a chemical drug into a living organism accumulates the drug inside the body and causes unnecessary medical issues.
Adaptation: Adaptation is an important evolutionary process that supports a living habitat of a specific organism. By this process, a living species or organism adapts itself to the surrounding environment.
Agonistic: The kind of social behavior exhibited by living organisms regarding fighting mode refers to agonistic. And the animals who exhibit such behavior show aggressive nature through threats, displays, conciliation, etc.
Agrarian: Agrarian is a person who does land cultivation, farming, and re-distribution of land property. Agricultural society is a society where most people do land cultivation for their survival and otherwise known as an agrarian society.
Airborne: Airborne is the term used very often in medical sciences to describe the illnesses capable of transforming through Air.
Alchemist: Alchemist is the person who practices the natural philosophical tradition of making things change for the betterment. It seems like a magical process and exists in this world since ancient days.
Alignment: Alignment is the type of arrangement pattern using which something arranges in a straight line or some other.
Allele: Allele is a specific gene present in the pair of genes located in a specific place on chromosomes and performs the same function and genome. Alleleomorphs is the other name for alleles.
Alluvial soil: Alluvial soils are the most fertile soils found along the rivers, deltas, and plains. These soils are the deposits of river streams flowing heavily during floods—alluvial soils composed of different materials like clay, silt, sand, and gravel.
Alveoli: Alveoli, otherwise known as bronchioles, are the tiny air sacs present in the lungs. The main function of alveoli is to collect the oxygen breathed in and pump it to other parts of the body. Hence, they are considered as workhorses of your respiratory system.
Ambiparous: Ambiparous is something in botany characterized by encompassed of flowers and leaf litters.
Amphibian: Amphibians are the vertebrates belonging to the class of amphibians, which include salamanders, frogs, toads, caecilians. These animals differ from other vertebrates classes as they contain the aquatic gill-breathing larval stage during its life stages. Amphibians are capable of leading their life both on water and land. But wherever they live, they just need some moisture to survive.
Analysis: The detailed study of something using scientific knowledge, mathematic theories, and physics and chemistry laws to understand it completely is analysis. Besides, it is a technique of classifying the complex materials or subject into simple units for better understanding also refers to analysis.
Ancestor: An ancestor is either a person or an animal from whom the offsprings arrive and maintain the ecosystems through generations and generations. For Ex: Great Grand Father.
Anomaly: Anomaly is the significant concept in natural sciences through which something like planets and satellites deviate its angular distance from its perihelion.
Antigen: Antigen, a molecular structure in the human body that supports stimulating immune system like lymphocytes (illness fighting WBC’s). Exogenous antigens, endogenous antigens, and autoantigens are the three main types of antigens in the human body that triggers immune responses.
Apiary: The place where honey bees are collected and kept refers to the apiary. Generally, apiaries come in different sizes and areas depending on honey production from the collected beehives.
Apparatus: Apparatusis a handheld appliance mostly used in laboratories to hold or analyze certain materials like chemical compounds, liquids, etc.
Application: The act of applying scientific knowledge while analyzing substances or rubbing off something over a substance or its surface is applied.
Aquatic: Anything termed as aquatic when its lifetime is happening in the presence of water or inside water. For Ex: Aquatic plants like lotus and aquatic animals like fish.
Archaeology: The branch of social and natural sciences that deals with the human past through the fossils left behind by the ancient people long ago is archaeology. The persons who deal with this subject refer to archaeologists.
Arboreal: The habitat of animals living on trees is termed arboreal.
Artery: The muscular and tubular structures present in the heart to carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to other tissues of the entire body are arteries. It is a blood vessel with three inner linings.
Science Words Starting With A – Worksheet (Free Download)