Hello everyone, today I have come up with the glossary of science words and definitions that start with the letter ‘G’.
If you are searching for the best glossary of science words, then here is the post that completely covers the science related words with examples. Let us begin!
Glossary of Science Words that start with Letter G
Science Words in the field of Chemistry
Gallium: The chemical element that holds the atomic number 31 with the symbol Ga in the periodic table is gallium. It is silvery-white in color and is a metal by nature. It is the by-product produced during the process of refining various kinds of ores. Since it conducts electricity, it is highly useful in optoelectronic devices and semiconductors.
Gadolinium: The chemical element that belongs to the lanthanide series of elements is again a metal with atomic number 64. ‘Gd’ is the symbol of Gadolinium. The significant role of Gadolinium in MRI tests is to provide clear images and pictures of internal organs of the human body. Eventually, it helps in the accuracy of MRI diagnosis.
Galvanic cell: Galvanic cell, also known as the voltaic cell, is a type of electrochemical cell which plays a major role in converting chemical energy into electrical energy. Galvanic cells are mainly accessed to spontaneous redox reactions and finally result in electric current. And the type of electrolyte, along with the salt bridge, plays a major role in producing electric current through galvanic cells.
Gallon: Anything present in larger quantities represented by Gallon. Also, it is a unit term that defines the capacity or amount of liquids is Gallon. Gallon has three different versions such as;
1) 1 US gallon is equal to 0.83 UK gallons or 3.785 L
2) 1 US dry gallon is equal to 4.405 L
3) 1 UK gallon is equal to 4.546 L or 1.2 US gallons
Galvanization: The method of preventing the formation of rusting on the metals such as steel and iron is Galvanization. It happens by coating the steel or iron with zinc. The other name for this process is galvanizing.
Galvanometer: The electro-mechanical instrument that helps in recognizing and calculating the small electric currents is a galvanometer. It works effectively through an actuator that records the mechanical rotation of forces involved in current circulation.
Gas: The air-like substance present all around us in oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, etc., is gas. The gaseous mixture that is combustible for creating fire or light is natural gas. For example, gasoline. It has the special property of expanding freely when placed in a container. Also, it does not have any stable volume or shape.
Galvanized Steel: The kind of steel protected from rusting by coating with zinc is Galvanized steel. The process, Galvanization helps produce galvanized steel.
Gamma Radiation: The type of radiation consisting of shorter wavelengths and high photon energies is nothing but gamma radiation. The symbol γ represents gamma radiation. These rays are the result of the radioactive degradation of nuclei of an atom. Since they have high penetrating power, they can pass through the human body and cause DNA and tissue damage.
Gas Constant: The proportionality constant represented by the letter ‘R’ that relates the energy change per one mole of increase in temperature is gas constant. It is simply a type of constant in ideal gas law identical to Boltzmann’s Constant and Ideal Gas Constant.
Ideal Gas Law Equation says; PV = nRT
Where, P= Pressure, V= Volume, T= Temperature, n= Number of Moles, R= Gas Constant. Here, the gas constant depends on the changes happening for pressure, volume, and temperature.
Gauche: The conformation representing the dihedral angle of two angles or bonds whose angle ranges between 0° to 90° is gauche.
Gay-Lussac’s Law: Gay-Lussac’s law states that ‘at constant volume, gas substance pressure, and temperature relates directly. That means, if the pressure of gas increases, the temperature of the same amount of gas increases. P/T= Constant. And it is a part of ideal gas law.
The proportion between the first pressure and temperature is always identical to a gas molecule’s final pressure and temperature at a fixed volume. Let us find this ratio in the form of a formula.
P1/V1= P2/V2. Here, P1=Initial Pressure; P2=Final Pressure; V1=Initial Volume, V2=Final Volume.
Gauge Pressure: Gauge pressure represents the atmospheric pressure calculated regarding the number of fluids exceeding the standard system of pressure. The gauge pressure value is negative when the system of pressure shows a low range while positive when the system of pressures exceeds.
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Geochemistry: The branch of science that deals with the solid material on the Earth using chemistry’s chemical laws and principles is Geochemistry. This study helps in learning the functioning and mechanisms of geological systems present on the Earth. Also, it helps deal with the exploitation of natural resources on the Earth, such as metals, petroleum, rocks, and minerals. In addition, it is a great subject to understand various environmental problems such as global warming, water pollution, soil pollution, and ozone depletion.
Geiger-Müller counter: The device useful for sensing and calculating the ionizing radiation is nothing but the Geiger-Müller counter. Ionizing particles take a major part in recognizing the radioactive process.
Geology: The study of geological structures that make the Earth’s composition, such as rocks, minerals, volcanoes, earthquakes, gemstones, tectonics, metals, etc., is geology. The persons who study these natural resources are geologists.
Gel: Gel is a semi-solid substance that shows sticky and thick properties. The properties of the gel are mainly helpful in manufacturing therapeutic and beautifying products. And in organic chemistry, it is highly helpful in separating macromolecules present in organic polymer compounds.
Gibbs free energy: The free enthalpy which tells the maximum quantities of energy used to carry out a thermodynamic system under constant and standard conditions is Gibbs free energy. Gibbs function is the other popular name for Gibbs free energy, and the alphabet ‘G’ represents it.
G = H – TS; where H= enthalpy, T= temperature, and S= entropy.
The value of ΔG is positive for non-spontaneous reactions, negative for spontaneous reactions, and remains zero for equilibrium reactions.
Germanium: The metalloid chemical element with atomic number 32 is useful in manufacturing conducting devices and transistors. We can also find this element in fluorescent lamps and devices whose purpose is to recognize particle emission in lenses and windows.
Geometric Isomer: The chemical compounds that show their spatial position based on the circle-like arrangements and double bonds while possessing geometric structures are geometric isomers. Pt(NH3)2Cl2 is the best example that reveals geometric isomers.
Gibbs-Helmholtz Equation: An equation that tells the relation between the temperature plus pressure changes and Gibbs energy changes is Gibbs-Helmholtz Equation. dG=−SdT+VdP is the simplest formula to calculate Gibbs-Helmholtz Equation.
Glass Transition: The reversible process of converting a hard amorphous substance into elastic ones by loosening the molecules present inside it is glass transition. And the substances which participate in glass transition refers to glass. However, the process of glass transition works by cooling and compressing methods. Therefore, it is otherwise popular as Glass-Liquid Transition.
Glass: The solid substance made of an irregular arrangement of atoms and molecules in a messy state and is the resulting product of the molten process is nothing but glass. There are different types of glasses such as Lead crystal glass, pyrex glass, potash glass, crown glass, etc.
Giga: Giga is the term useful as a prefix word while mentioning the units in the metric system such as gigabyte. The letter G represents Giga and is mathematically connected with x109. For Ex: 150 Gm is the distance between Sun and Earth. Here Gm says, Giga meters.
Glass Transition Temperature: The temperature at which there is a 30-50 carbon chain movement is Glass Transition Temperature. At this temperature, the tightly bonded atoms become loose, and thus movement happens while transferring from solid-state to elastic state.
Glycerite: When any substance or sample is soaked in glycerine, a fluid-like substance is precipitated and extracted. That extract from glycerine solution refers to Glycerite. Therefore, Glycerite is very useful in preparing medicinal substances that soothe the skin and in all kinds of soaps, balms, etc.
Gln: The molecular name of Gln is glutamine, an amino acid that is also denoted as ‘Q’.
Gly: The amino acid glycine is represented in short form as Gly. And the letter G also represents glycine amino acid.
Glu: Glu is the short name for glutamic acid, an amino acid with the molecular formula C5 H9 N O4. The letter ‘E’ also denotes glutamic acid.
Glycosidic Bond: The type of covalent bond that plays a major role in joining either two carbohydrates or one carbohydrate with another molecule is glycosidic bonds. For example, Hemiketal and hemiacetal are compounds formed using glycosidic bonds.
Glycol: The sweet-natured organic compounds belonging to the simple alcoholic class of compounds where two hydroxyl groups linked to two different carbon atoms is glycol. It is usually colorless and is an effective anti-freezer, but it is an artificially produced chemical compound.
G-protein Coupled Receptor: G-protein Coupled Receptor is a receptor molecule that traps the substances from outside and sends them to intracellular membranes. That particular intracellular molecule is nothing but G-Protein, and the receptors work by transferring signals from the outer membrane to the inner membranes of proteins.
Graham’s Law: The law that states the relationship between the diffusion and emission of gases regarding its molar masses is Graham’s Law. To put it simply, this law says that the diffusion rate is inversely proportional to the molecular mass of gases.
Gold: The yellow chemical element and is a metal by nature with atomic number 79 in the periodic table is gold. It is available moderately and naturally in the Earth’s crust. And it grans the name of the highest atomic number element in organic chemistry that occurs naturally. The symbol ‘Au’ denotes gold metal in the periodic table.
Grain Alcohol: In organic chemistry, the simple and organic compound with molecular formula C. 2H. 6O. is nothing but grain alcohol. And it is very popular with many names such as drinking alcohol, ethyl alcohol, ethanol, and simply alcohol.
Gram Molecular Mass: One mole of a chemical substance present in one gram of it represents gram molecular mass. Grams or grams/mole denotes the value units of gram molecular mass. It is otherwise famous for the name molar mass.
Gram: In the CGS measurement system, the unit’s name that describes solid substances’ weights is a gram.
Gravimetric Analysis: The significant quantitative and chemical investigation method for defining the amount of analyte present in a sample is Gravimetric Analysis. This process utilizes a wide range of laboratory techniques and chemical laws to determine the analyte’s weight. One such technique is here: Liquify a certain quantity of chemical compound which consists of ions in it into a solvent. Gravimetric analysis can separate both the compound and ion from the solution, and the ions are separately weighed.
Green Chemistry: The field of science and chemistry that aims to manufacture products and methods chemical-free or with fewer chemicals is Green Chemistry. In this way, green chemistry helps in reducing environmental contamination, plus chemical and hazardous substances influence human health. To achieve such a healthy environment, green chemistry comes up with twelve types of principles.
You can find them here: https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/chemistry/greener-alternatives/green-chemistry.html.
Gray: Gray is the unit of energy absorbed or emitted from the radiation. 1 Gray = 1 joule of energy engaged/kilogram of matter.
Greenhouse Effect: The natural practice of absorbing the sun’s heat radiations by the particles of Earth’s atmosphere and increasing the system’s temperature is the greenhouse effect. The gases involved in such a process are greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane, etc.
Green Vitriol: Green Vitriol, otherwise known as copperas, is the old-fashioned name of ferrous sulfate i.e. FeSO4, which is also popular with the name iron sulfate.
Greenhouse Gas: The gas which can absorb the radiation coming from infrared rays and hitting back to its source is greenhouse gas. Usually, these radiations originate from Earth’s surface and return to the same surface through such types of gases.
Group: The arrangement of chemical elements happens in groups depending on the columns they are existing in. such columns refer to groups. These elements in the groups share similar valence electron and vacancy counts.
Ground State: The lower state of energy where there is no further lowering of energy while losing or transferring electrons to various orbitals is the ground state. In a quantum mechanical system, it refers to zero-point energy.
Groups I, II, III, IV: The assembly of chemical elements in a column in the periodic table denotes a group. There are four types of such groups in the periodic table, i.e., Group I, Group II, Group III, and Group IV. And every group has its name depending on the properties of elements present in that particular group. However, in qualitative analysis, this group of elements denotes cationic elements of groups. Forex:
Group I: Hg22+, Ag+, Pb2+
Group II: Sb5+, Cd2+, (Pb2+), Cu2+
Group III: Al3+, Mn2+, (Cd2+), Co2+
Group IV: Ba2+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+
Science Words in the Field of Biology and Astronomy
Geo-science: The branch of science that deals with the natural and physical resources of substances such as rocks, minerals, and volcanoes is Geo-science. The person who makes studies on these areas of Earth refers to geologists.
Germination: The growing part of the plant existing inside and on the seed resulting in a seedling or young plant is germination. It is the initial process of plant growth inside the soil.
Gestation: Nine months calculated right from the time of conception until the time of birth is gestation. It represents the fetal development period experienced by a pregnant lady. The gestation period is visible in almost all types of mammals.
Galaxy: The large group of stars and other celestial bodies and dirt, smoke and dust present in the space intact because of gravitational force is a galaxy. Milky Way is the name of the galaxy present on Earth.
Gastritis: The irritation on the linings of the stomach, which begins as an acute state and gradually turns into the chronic state, is nothing but a gastritis medical condition. This damage to the linings of the stomach leads to harmful acid secretions, which eventually end up causing stomach linings damage, i.e., ulcer.
Gravitation Force: The force of attraction making things move towards the center of gravity is nothing but gravitation force.
Geothermal: The energy derived from the process of healing substances is thermal energy, and such kind of energy deposited on the Earth is geothermal energy. Geothermal energy is also a resulting thing from the radioactive degradation processes.
Global: Anything relating to the whole world denotes the term global.
Grotto: The cave-like structures formed either naturally or artificially and used from ancient times to modern times refer to a grotto. These types of caves are present near the water bodies that are porn to flood easily.
Green: Green is the color present in the spectrum symbolizing the natural world and nature. Its location is after the blue color segment and before the yellow color segment in the spectrum.
Ground Water: The stored water present in the spaces and cracks of Earth’s natural resources like rocks, soil, etc. refers to groundwater. The groundwater is not just stored but can move slowly from one place to another due to surrounding conditions.
Gauge Bosons: Gauge bosons are the intermediate force carriers, and as the name suggests, these carriers help in holding the basic communications of nature.
Gaia Hypothesis: The process of maintaining the balance between living and non-living things present on the Earth by forming automated systems is the Gaia hypothesis.
Gametes: Gametes are the sex or reproductive cells of either of the gender type on the Earth. The reproductive cells of a female organism refer to female gametes known as egg or ova cells. In contrast, male sex cells refer to male gametes known as sperms. Any type of gametes are haploid by nature, which means they carry a single copy of chromosomes.
Galilean Moons: Callisto, Europa, Lo, and Ganymede are the four major moons that appear on the planet Jupiter. These satellites are first brought into the world of science by the scientist Galileo. These moons are spherical and rotate around the planet in orbit like Earth’s moon.
Geochemical Cycling: The rotation of various chemical atoms and elements between the different reservoirs of Earth, such as crust and surface, is nothing but geochemical cycling. This process of rotation mainly happens in the layers of the hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere.
Gasification: The thermal transformation of carbon-based organic compounds into synthetic gases like fuels such as carbon monoxide is simply gasification.
Genotyping: Genotyping is a technological process that defines the dissimilarities in a certain genetic material belonging to two different individuals. This study helps in detecting the phenotypic changes happening when a person is suffering from pathological diseases.
Geostrophic Flow: The balancing mechanism between the pressure gradient and Coriolis forces in the current flow developed inside oceans is geostrophic.
Geography: The branch of social science which determines the relationship between individuals and their neighboring surroundings is geography. The physical, environmental, and human geography are the three main types of geography. To put it simple, it is the study of Earth and its regular resources regarding the physical and dweller structures.
Globular Clusters: The group of stars tightly surrounded together in the shape of a circle with the help of gravity refers to globular clusters. And in this group, you can find hundreds and thousands of stars, which helps understand the center point of galaxies and the lifetime of our universe. Also, these clusters of stars are greatly luminous by nature which is roughly identical to 25,000 suns.
Glucose: The basic charged particle exhibiting strong interactional forces to hold quarks together tightly are nothing but glucose.
Gigabytes: Gigabyte is a unit term that reveals certain amounts of computer information or data. ‘G’ or ‘GB’ represents the unit of a gigabyte. 1 Gigabyte= 1,024 megabytes.
Geotropism: The development of living organisms and plants towards the direction of gravity is nothing but geotropism. Forex: The plants or fungi that grow upwards show negative geotropism, while those showing growth towards downwards holding positive geotropism.
Glucose: The significant type of sugar substance present in the blood, starch, and fruits, which helps supply energy to the body cells, is glucose. The foods absorbed in the blood and the human body itself are great sources of glucose. However, the production of sugar levels in the human body is controlled by the hormone insulin.
Germanium Detector: The semiconductor diode machine which helps in detecting the radiations coming from gamma and x-rays are germanium detectors. This instrument works by the interaction between the semiconductor diode and the ionizing radiation from gamma rays. This interaction results in producing electron-hole pairs.
Geosynchronous Orbit: The Earth’s orbit, i.e., circular and straightforward, helping in matching the satellite’s rate of speed to the planet’s rotational speed is geosynchronous orbit.
Giga Pascal: The term helps calculate the pressure, stress, tensile strength, and Young’s Modulus is Giga pascal. In the CGS system, it is equivalent to 10 baryes. Besides, 1 GPa= 10 kilobars.
Geothermal Gradient: The temperature changes happening when going deeper into the Earth’s composition per unit area is geothermal gradient.
Global Warming Potential: The capacity of any type of greenhouse gas helping for the maintenance of global warming and at what rate it is contributing, termed as global warming potential.
Geophysics: The branch of science that deals with Earth’s physical characteristics based on the laws mentioned in physics is geo physics. This study helps in learning the exact whereabouts of minerals, hydrocarbons, and other natural resources. And the study analyses the Earth’s surface using quantitative methods.
Genetics: The study dealing with living organisms regarding their genetic information based on the genome types and hereditary characteristics is genetics. There are many fields in genetics, such as mouse genetics, human genetics, cancer genetics, etc.
Graduated Cylinder: The glass apparatus with a long beak useful for measuring fluids in the science laboratories is a graduated cylinder. The size of these cylinders usually comes with dimensions ranging from 5ml to 500ml.
Glassware: The set of glass materials in the science lab, such as glass vessels, glass containers, glass serving dishes, glass tubes, etc., refers to glassware.
Gravity: The natural process of the center of attraction that drags all the objects on the Earth, including planets, things, energy, galaxies, light, etc., towards it is gravity.
G-banding: G-banding is also popular as Giemsa banding. It is a scientific procedure of building exclusive patterns and classifying every homologous set of chromosomes. This process works by creating thin bands, which help in producing unique patterns in chromosome sets. And in laboratories, this method helps detect genetic diseases using image representation techniques.
GABA: GABA is the short-term Gamma-aminobutyric acid, a naturally happening amino acid in the human body. Mostly, we find this type of amino acid in the brains of humans, and it works effectively as a chemical messenger. Since its main function is to block or inhibit certain brain functions, it is popular with another name, i.e., an inhibitory neurotransmitter. Thus, it helps in calming down certain brain activities and relaxes the nervous system.
Gain-of-Function Dominant: Gain-of-function is a type of mutation that changes the pattern of genes related to the expression function. Finally, these mutations are dominant and end in losing such functions.
Game Theory: Game Theory is the technique of solving strategic mathematical interactions while considering the applications from all the fields of science. Such branches of science include economics, social sciences, operational researchers, etc.
Gametes: In biology, the sexual cells of either a female or male organism are referred to by the term ‘Gametes’. The gametes present in female organisms are ‘ova’ or ‘egg’ while the male ones are ‘sperms’. These two types of gametes are more likely to undergo external and internal fertilization. And are different from one another in regards to their size, function and form.
Gametic Selection: The type of mechanism in heterozygotes that helps in producing differential reproductive success of alleles using certain forces is gametic selection.
Gametophyte: In biology, the gametophyte is a kind of phase involved in the reproductive process in certain algae and plant varieties.
Ganglion: The sac-like structure present in the joints of humans filled with a thick jelly-like substance with the help of a tissue known as synovium. Ganglions are generally small, spherical and painless. These are very common to develop in the joints and are not dangerous. But when it comes in contact with the nerves, it is painful.
Gastrulation: Gastrulation is one of the stages that happen during embryonic development. It helps in converting the embryo from a single-layered blastula stage to a multiple layered gastrula stage.
Gay-Lussac’s Law: Gay-Lussac’s Law is one of the ideal gas laws which states that the relation between the pressure and temperature of a given amount of gas is directly proportional.
GC-Rich Area: Certain DNA sequence areas reveal the repeated stretches of G and C genes in higher amounts known as GC-Rich areas.
Gel Electrophoresis: In scientific laboratories, the separating technique of DNA fragments for further analysis into macromolecules is gel electrophoresis. And this method works by analyzing the sizes and charges upon DNA fragments. So not only just DNA but also RNA and other protein fragments get separated using this simple science technique.
Gene: Gene is an important material of chromosomes that consists of all about information of a living organism right from their ancestors to the current generation. Hence, it is well known as a basic and physical unit of hereditary.
Gene Amplification: Gene amplification is either a natural or artificial process of generating any number of genome copies in higher amounts. This process mainly occurs by keeping the other genes inactive that means not much active in increasing the genome copies.
Green Chip Technology: The technique that helps gather microscopic DNA spots present on any kind of hard substance is green chip technology. It is popular with the name DNA or Biochip and is highly useful for detecting the repeated areas of a genome and expression genes.
Gene Conversion: The natural process of recombination that helps in the non-reciprocal transfer of genetic material between homologous sequences is gene conversion.
Gene Cloning: Gene cloning is the scientific technique of separating a particular DNA sequence from the parent chain to create more copies. This process is also popular with the name molecular cloning.
Gene Dose: The certain number of single-gene present in a genome refers to gene dose.
Gene Expression: The process of converting the genetic information of a DNA fragment into a functional unit, i.e., the protein-producing unit is gene expression. Proteins are the end products of gene expression.
Gene Family: The formation of an identical set of duplicated genes from a range of identical biochemical functions, and the original gene is gene family.
Gene Flow: The relocation of genetic information from one population to another population is gene flow. Gene flow is of two major types, i.e., 1) gene flow from bacterial population to a higher organism and 2) gene flow from an endosymbiont to the host.
Gene Frequency: Gene frequency or allele frequency is the term useful for determining the rate of how often a gene occurs in its population.
Gene Fusion: The fusion of two independent genes to produce a hybrid gene is gene fusion. And it is also a product of interstitial deletion, translocation, and chromosomal inversion.
Gene Interaction: Gene interactions are the functional interactions between the alleles that help understand the characteristics of phenotype and genotype. Forex: Epistasis. Epistasis is the interaction between the non-allelic genes to create a new trait or inhibit a functional gene.
Gene Linkage: The inheritance of DNA sequences happening during the sexual process of an organism is gene linkage. Forex: Gene linkage of eye and hair color resulting in either brown hair with brown eyes or blonde hair with blue eyes.
Gene Locus: The specific location of a particular gene present particularly on a chromosome is gene locus.
Gene Map: In genetics, genes’ spatial and sequential arrangement on a chromosomal sequence is a gene map. Gene maps encompass various gene markers, which helps find out the distance between the other genes and chromosomes. However, gene maps are species-specific.
Gene Mapping: In molecular biology and genetics, gene mapping is a technique to determine a particular gene’s position and its distance from other genes. This technique helps in detecting the molecular markers that caused disease in a child through hereditary. Also, it helps in detecting the disease-causing gene and its position on the chromosomal sequence.
Genetic Marker: Any kind of alteration in a specific DNA sequence of nucleic acids, whose location is detectable on a chromosome is a genetic marker. Generally, genetic markers help detect the individuals who face inherited diseases and learn the location of disease-causing genes.
Genetic Map: Genetic map is a scientific technique of finding out the exact location of a gene on a chromosomal sequence based on the linkage concept.
Genetic Code: Genetic code is a mathematical calculation that tells the fitness differences between the reference and sample genotypes.
Genetic Linkage Map: The procedure of learning the location of the genes and genetic markers using the recombination frequency method is a genetic linkage map. And it is not specific to tell about the physical distance of the genes.
Genetic Fine Structure: Genetic fine structure is a cytological analysis that helps in isolating the mutations happening inside the genomes into specific regions.
Genetic Engineering: Genetic engineering is a scientific technique of manipulating the genomes of a living organism using recombinant DNA technology. This manipulation method works effectively by controlling the selected and breeding children. Forex: Onions that do not make you cry, Mouse-ear cress, purple tomatoes, etc.
Genetic Drift: Genetic drift is the strongest and drastic change in the frequency of alleles in a small population because of the sampling of organisms.
Genetic Dissection: The type of approach that helps keep several constituents of a given biological function intact using recombination and mutation methods is genetic dissection.
Genetic Disease: In medical terms, the genetic disease is a health condition that causes by inheritance and due to lack of required genes in a genome.
Genetic Assimilation: The process of production of a variety of phenotypes produced as a result of long exposure to teratogen is genetic assimilation. Later, such phenotypes become encoded genetically using either natural or artificial selection methods.
Genetic: Anything related to genesis genetic. On the other hand, genetics is a branch of biology that deals with the study of genetic variations, inherited genes, gene mutations, etc.
Generalized Transduction: The technique of introducing a new or foreign DNA sequence into another cell using viruses as transmitting vehicles is transduction. There are two types of transduction techniques such as generalized transduction and specified transduction. Generalized transduction is the transduction technique that introduces foreign DNA into the host’s genome at any portion of the DNA sequence by viral vectors.
Generalized Tonic-Clonic: Generalised tonic-clonic, also popular with the name grand mal seizure, is the resulting condition of epilepsy. The inappropriate motion of electric signals causes disturbances in the brain on both sides, resulting in generalized tonic-clonic development.
Generalized Seizure: The abnormal functionality of the brain in its two halves due to inappropriate electric signals activity is a generalized seizure. And the symptoms from generalized seizures include violent muscle contractions, sudden loss of consciousness, stiffness in the muscles, etc.
Gene-Trapping: Depending on the locked-in location of the gene and its functionality, we can isolate the mutations happening in a phenotype. And such a trapping method is nothing but gene trapping. Hence, it is highly useful for detecting the mutations happening in undifferentiated ES cells of an organism’s genome.
Gene Translocation: The uncommon reorganization of chromosomes in a DNA sequence is gene translocation in genetics. And the chromosome which got translocated is termed a translocated chromosome.
Gene Transfer: Gene transfer is a method of introducing genetic information of DNA into another organism’s cells with the help of a living vector. Such vectors include bacteriophages and viruses. Mainly, there are four different types of gene transfer: 1) Isolation of gene and vector, 2) Digestion of gene and vector, 3) Ligation of gene and vector, and 4) Selection and expression of transgenic construct.
Gene Transcription: The scientific method of synthesizing RNA copies from the fragments of DNA sequence is gene transcription. And such RNA sequences are well known as mRNA i.e., messenger RNA. This RNA sequence helps in the production of proteins in the cytoplasm.
Gene Therapy: In the medical field, gene therapy is a miracle method of treating genetic disorders by resolving the issue of altered genes with the introduction of a new DNA sequence. The new DNA helps in correcting the altered sequence of a diseased gene with its functionality genes.
Gene Splicing: In molecular biology and genetics, gene splicing has different definitions depending on its context. Let us see what they are:
1) The process of separating the introns during genetic transcription refers to gene splicing.
2) The method of converting mRNA from precursor form to matured form is RNA splicing.
3) The technique of introducing bases to the DNA strand using chemical laws is gene splicing.
Gene Product: Gene products are the genetic materials such as RNA and various proteins that exist in certain cellular compartments and are the resultant materials of gene expression. Forex: histones, glycosyltransferases, collagen, and peptide hormone receptors.
Gene Pool: Gene pool gathers and complete genetic information of a particular population belonging to a specific species. That means we get the complete genetic information about a single species and its population, including both expressive and non-expressive genes.
Gene Pair: In a diploid cell, we see two different sets of alleles that are either identical or non-identical present at a locus on a homologous chromosome. Such a pair of two different genes represent gene pair.
Gene Mutation: The changes in the sequences of genetic material are gene mutations. Some mutations may produce new DNA or RNA sequences with new functionality, while some result in causing various diseases.
Gene Modification: Gene modification is nothing but genetic engineering or gene manipulation, which deals with manipulating an organism’s genes with the help of biotechnology.
Germ Cell: Any biological cell which helps in producing male and female gametes, which tend to reproduce sexually, is a germ cell. The two main functions of germ cells include creating a haploid set of chromosomes via meiosis and the formation of a zygote to form an individual.
Germ Line: The persistence set of sexually reproducing cells of a multicellular organism capable of passing their genes from one generation to another generation is germline.
Germ-Line Theory: Germ-line theory states that all the genome sets of B-lymphocytes and other genomes formed from germ lines have genes for the repertoire of transcription of immunoglobulins.
Germarium: All the undifferentiated cells become a group to form nurse cells, follicular cells, and oocytes called germarium.
Germinal Mutation: Any type of alteration in the sexual cells, i.e., germ cells, is a germinal mutation. When a mutated germ cell, i.e., either a male gamete or a female gamete, takes part in forming a zygote, the offspring is likely to experience such alterations.
Giemsa Stain: In cytogenetics, the nucleic acid bloodstain used as bone marrow specimens useful for detecting malaria and other disease-causing parasites is Giemsa stain.
GEO: GEO is the short form of a genetically engineered organism produced from genetically engineered techniques.
Genus: Genus refers to the biological classification of species connected through a common background.
Genotype: The complete set of genetic information of an organism is genotype. Also, if any two genes inherit the same gene denotes genotype.
Genophore: The type of chromosomes that are capable to inherit genetic material and are especially present in viruses, prokaryotes, semiautonomous organelle is genophore.
GMO: GMO is the short term for a genetically modified organism whose genetic information has been modified with the help of genetic engineering techniques. These organisms help produce new varieties of species within their population, which is not possible through natural methods.
Genomic Library: Genomic library is the library where one can find complete genome information of a living organism.
Genomic DNA: Genomic DNA is nothing but the genetic material of an organism’s DNA, which is transferable from one generation to another.
Genome: In genetics and molecular biology, the complete genetic material of an organism’s chromosome set is the genome.
Genic Balance Theory: The theory which determines the sex of a fruit fly based on the number of autosomal and X chromosomes is genic balance theory.
Geneticist: The person who studies about genes and genetic variations causing genetic diseases in the science laboratory is a geneticist.
Genetic Screening: Genetic screening is a laboratory technique of detecting persons who are more likely to pass on genetic disorders from one generation to the other.
Genetic Predisposition: The tendency of increased probability of developing genetic disorder based on his/her genetic make-up is genetic predisposition. Genetic susceptibility is the other name for genetic predisposition. Mostly, the persons who are capable of transferring genetic mutations of a particular genetic disorder to his/her offspring can reveal genetic predisposition.
Genetic Polymorphism: In any population, if two alleles occupy a single locus of a gene, it can produce inherited traits. Such capability of genes refers to genetic polymorphism. Sexual dimorphism is the best example that defines genetic polymorphism, and other examples include human hemoglobin, kinds of blood, and mimetic forms in butterflies.
Genetic Mosaic: The phenomenon of developing an individual from the interaction between more than two genetic populations with dissimilar genotypes is genetic mosaic.